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bits Contain 0s (zero voltage) and 1s (positive voltage)
circuits Connections of switches to perform calculations such as multiplying two numbers.
processors Execute a list of desired calculations
instructions Calculations
memory Circuit that can store 0s and 1s in each of a series of thousands of addressed locations.
application Or program; programmer-created sequence of instructions.
machine instructions Instructions represented as 0s and 1s.
executable program A sequence of machine instructions together.
assembly language Human-readable processor instructions; an assembler translates to machine instructions (0s and 1s).
high-level languages support programming using formulas and algorithms.
compiler translates a high-level language program into low-level machine instructions.
disk non-volatile storage with slower access.
nonvolatile can maintain their contents even when powered off.
RAM volatile storage with faster access usually located off processor chip.
byte 8 bits (memory size)
cache Relatively-small volatile storage with fastest access located on processor chip.
clock The frequency a processor executes instructions.
Moore's Law The doubling of IC capacity roughly every 18 months.
operating system Manages programs and interfaces with peripherals.
C First published in 1978
C++ First published in 1985
code Textual representation of a program.
line A row of text.
main Starting place of a program.
braces Denoting a list of statements.
statements Program instructions.
variable 1.Represents a particular memory location 2.takes up a different amount of space in memory depending on its type 3. Use good names to read program 4. Can change that variable of program
compiler Converts a program into low-level machine instructions of computer.
cout Supports printing
string literal Text in double quotes
endl starts a new output line
newline character A new line that can also be output by insterting \n
cin Short for "characters in"; reads input
comment Text added to code by programmer.
multi-line Comment /* and */ or block comment
declaration Variable definition
int variable Can only hold numbers between +2 and -2 billion
assignment statement stores the right side item's current vale into the variable on the left side (numApples=8;)
expressions numbers, variable names, simple calculations, or combo of var, literals and operators. Example: numKids+numAdults;
reserved Word int, short, or double
literal specific value in code like 2.
char can store a single character, like the letter m or the symbol %.
character literal surrounded with single quotes; ex: 'm'
string sequence of characters
whitespace Character character used to print spaces in text and include spaces, tabs, newlinchar.
getline(cin, stringVar); reads all user text on the input line, up to newlinchar resulting from user pressing ENTER.
double stores floating-point numbers (0.0)
floating-point literal written with fraction part even if is 0 as in 1.0, 99.0 (decimal form)
overflow occurs when the value being assigned to a variable is greater than the maximum value the variable can store.
long long uses 64 bits if value goes over 2billion
type conversion conversion of one data type to another, such as an int to a double.
type casting explicit conversion by the programmer of one type to another
static cast <double> converts the expression's value to the indicated type (from int to double) Ex: static_cast<double>(myIntVar) converts int 7 to double 7.0
math library 20 math operations available listed #include<cmath>
function list of statements that can be executed by referring to the function's name.
constant variable (const) an initialized variable whose value cannot change.
debugging process of determining and fixing the cause of a problem in a computer program.
troubleshooting "debugging"; predict possible cause of problem, conduct a test to validate cause.
branching directs a program to execute one statement group or another, depending on expression's value.
logical operator treats operands as being true or false, and evaluates to true or false. Example: a&&b (true when BOTH of its operands are true); a||b (true when AT LEAST ONE of its two operands are true); !a (true when its single operand is FALSE)
bool data type for variables that should store only values true or false. Example: define bool result; result = true or as in result = (age<25) or use if then statements: ((!result) && (b==c))
index each string character has a position called an index. The numbering starts with 0, not w.
at() someString.at(0) accesses the character at a particular index of a string.
exception a detected runtime error that commonly prints an error message and terminates the program.
loop a construct that repeatedly execute specific code as long as some condition is true
while loop a program construct that executes a list of sub-elements a list of sub-statements repeatedly as long as the loop's expression evaluates to true
looping iteration
loop variable counts the number of iterations of a loop
increment operator (i = i + 1) or (++i)
decrement operator (i = i - 1) or (--i)
for loop collects: loop variable initialization, loop expression, & loop variable update.
while loop use when the number of iterations is not computable before entering the loop, as when iterating until a user enters a particular character.
for loop use when the number of iterations is computable before entering the loop, as when counting down from X to 0, printing a character N times.
syntax error violate a programming language's rules on how symbols can be combined to create a program. Example: forgetting to end a statement with a semicolon.
syntax error also known as a type of compile-time error since it was detected by the compiler.
logic error an error that occurs while a program runs. Also called a RUNTIME ERROR or BUG.
warning compiler will sometime report THIS, which doesn't stop the compiler from creating an executable program, but indicates a possible logic error.
misleading error messages many errors confuse compiler resulting in_____ and are common.
statement int userAge; defines or declares a new variable named userAge. Compiler allocates memory location for userAge capable of storin an integer (int).
address compiler allocated variable name to memory location (97,98 or etc). The programmer must define a variable BEFORE any statement that assigns or reads the variable, so that the variable's memory locat. is known.
litterSize * yearlyLitters is assigned to annualMice annualMice = litterSize * yearlyLitters
identifier name created by a programmer for an item like a variable or function. Must be a sequence of letters (a-z, A-Z,_) and digits (0-9). Example: c, cat, Cat, n1m1. Invalid: 42c (don't start with #), hi there (no space) and cat! (no symbols!)CASE SENSITIVE!
reserved word also known as a KEYWORD. A programmer CANNOT use a reserved word as an identifier.
lower camel case capitalizing each word except the first: numApples, ppleOnBus
operator symbol for a built-in language calculation like + for addition.
arithmetic operators + - * / %
expressions mostly follow standard arithmetic rules such as order of evaluation, but does NOT allow multiplication shorthand of (example) 5y to represent 5 times y. DO NOT DO THAT. Factorials 5! are also not valid.
unary minus - can be used as a negative.
modulo operator % evaluates to the remainder of the division of 2 integer operands. Example: 24 % 10 = 4. Reason: 24 / 10 is 2 with remainder 4. And it ONLY WORKS for INTEGERS.
division division by 0 causes program to terminate. Second operand of / or % must NEVER be 0.
precedence rules compiler evaluates an expression's arithmetic operators using the order of standard mathematics.
compound operators provide a shorthand way to update a variable, such as userAge += 1 being shorthand for userAge = userAge + 1.
char variables under the hood, char var stores a letter as a number, the compiler knows to output a char type as the corresponding character.
ASCII early standard for encoding characters as numbers.
string data type isn't built into C++ as are char, int or double. But is available in stdrd library & can be used after add: #include <string> Programmer then defines a string variable as: string firstName; Can also do string firstMonth = "January"; otherwise empty.
cin do not add spaces. Example in "betty sue" since there's a space, will only store "betty" and "sue" will be in next input.
scientific notation useful for representing floating - point numbers that are much greater than or less than 0 such as 6.02x10^23. do 6.02e23 or decimal -23
floating - point variable should be used to represent a quantity measured in distance, temperature, volume, weight, etc. But agains using for money bc it is a countable item.
binary number each memory location is composed of bits (0s and 1s), a processor stores a number using base 2.
overflow compiler may not report a syntax error (syntax is correct) but may output a compiler warning message.
implicit conversions compiler auto performs several common conversions between int and double types. BUT DON'T EVER MIX THOSE 2 TOGETHER. Ex: int-to-double 25 becomes 25.0 double-to-int 4.9 becomes 4.
argument an input value to function appears between the parenthesis. Example: at.(argument) Function executes and RETURNS a new value. Ex2: pow(b,e)= b^e (multiple argument)
function call invoking a function
abs() computing the absolute value of an integer.
process of debugging 1. Predict a possible cause of problem. 2. Conduct a test to validate that cause. 3. Repeat
if-else statements supports branching; can be written without the else part. NOTE: A statement is NOT part of a branch (random lol)
relational operator (or equality operator) if-else expression commonly involves this. Example: (a<b), (a>b), (a<=b), (a==b), (a!=b)
boolean true or false (if a<b or a>=b etc)
multiple if-else branches if; else if; else if; else if; else. if-else, else-if statements However, if one if-statement is true, then the rest is considered false.
nested if-else statements a branch's statment can include any valid statements, including another if else. Ex: if; else if; (sub)if....else; (out) else
multiple if statements each if-statement is independent, and thus more than one branch is executed in contrast to the multi-branch if-else where it checks for the truth of each then test only ONE correct statement. Also takes much longer to execute the multiple if-else stat.
rules for arithmetic operatbooors In order of evaluation: (), unary (negative #'s), */%, + - , left to right. Errors ex: (5 * x + 1) = (5 * x) + 1 instead of 5 * (x+1).
relational and logical operators (except for !) 1.are binary operators (takes 2 operands (from left to right) and evaluate to true or false. 2.Only one operator is evaluated at a time, based on precedence rules.
Precendence rules for logical and relational operators In order of evaluation: (), !, */%+-, < <= > >=, == !=, &&, ||
int / double = double
double/double = double
nested loop a loop that appears as part of the body of another loop. Commonly referred to as the INNER LOOP and OUTER LOOP.
Created by: Jors-go