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Neuro Chapter 6

Diencephalon Thalamus Hypothalamus Epithalamus Subthalamus
Epithalamus Part of Diencephalon that regulates diurnal (sleep Cycle,body temperature, metabolic rate/digestion) and automatic body functions Consists of the Pineal Gland & Habenular
Subthalamus Part of Diencephalon that is Important in motor control
Hypothalamus -Part of Diencephalon that mediates endocrine and metabolic states -Is directly related to the limbic system -Regulates body temp, water and food intake, metabolism, sexual behavior, anger, aggression.
Limbic System takes care of our most primitive functions like sexual drive, hunger etc...
Main function of Thalamus -acts as relay station receiving info & sending info to another part of the CNS
Other Functions of Thalamus -Integrates sensorimotor information from the Basal Ganglia, Cerebellum, & Cortex -Regulates function of association cortex & cortically mediated speech, language, & cognitive functions.
Three levels of Thalamic Nuclei Medial Ventral Lateral
Anterior Nucleus of the Thalamus Most primitive of thalamic nucleus Relays info to the Limbic system,contributes to direction of: digestive respiratory urogenital endocrine functions
Reticular Nucleus Thalamic nucleus that acts a sensory integrator and relayer of motor info -Located between external medullary lamina and internal capsule
Intralaminar Nuclei -Thalamic nucleus in core of internal medullary lamina -Has afferent and efferent connections -Modulates Excitability of association cortex
Intralaminar Nuclei Afferent Connections -Brings info into the thalamus from various locations like the Globus Pallidus, Vestibular N, Superior colliculus, brainstem reticular formation, Cortex, Brainstem & Cerebellum
Intralaminar Nuclei Efferent Connections Takes info away from the Thalamus to the Basal Ganglia and Cortex
Dorsomedial Nucleus Integrates emotion, thought, and judgment Destruction lowers threshold for rage May be related Korsakoff's syndrome
Dorsomedial Nucleus Afferent connections Afferent(towards the thalamus) connections from prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, centromedianum nucleus, hypothalamus
Dorsomedial Nucleus Efferent connections Efferent (away) projections to prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex and limbic structures
Midline Nucelus Complex -Medial Nucleus of the Thalamus -Important in visceral functions -Afferent Connections from brainstem reticular formation -Efferent Connections to Cingulate gyrus and hypothalamus
Pulvinar Lateral nuclear complex located on the posterior portion of the Thalamus -Connects visual areas with association cortex -Important in language formation, language processing, lexical properties, reading writing-
Ventral Anterior Nucleus Thalamic Ventral Nuclear Complex -Premotor cortex and skilled movements -Voluntary movements
Ventrolateral Nucleus Thalamic Ventral Nuclear Complex -Contributes to voluntary motor tasks
Ventral Posterior Nucleus Thalamic Ventral Nuclear Complex Sensation from Body and Face
Lateral Geniculate Bodies -located on the Thalamus (little posterior balls) -Relay center for Vision -Unilateral lesion would not cause vision lost, bilateral would
Medial Geniculate Body -located on the Thalamus -Relay center for Audition (cannot see on thalamus picture) -unilateral destruction in this area you will still be able to hear in both ears b/c only 10% of info if ipsilateral. Bilateral lesion would result in hearing lost
Pineal Gland Part of the epithalamus -Important for hormone productions -Inhibitory influence over gonadal function (sex function) -Diurnal rhythms (Important for regulating sleep cycle)
Habenular Nucleus Part of the epithalamus -Serves autonomic function and emotional drives
Parts of the Subthalamus 2 Parts: -Subthalamic Nuclei -Zona Incerta
Subthalamic Nuclei - Controls Motor functions - deterioration of this area causes Hemiballism (motor disorder: involuntary violent movements, persists only during wakefulness)
Zona Incerta Visualmotor Coordinator
Parts of Hypothalamus -Optic chiasm (where visiual info crosses over) -Mammillary Bodies -Hypophysis (Pituitary gland) -Infundibular stem -Tuber cinereum
Cognitive Functions of Thalamus -Involved in language & speech functions -Subcortical aphasia include a thalamic based aphasia (left dominant thalamus) -Word Fluency Problems (decrease word output) -Neurogenic stuttering from surgeries or stroke in thalamus
Thalamic Syndrome -Gross detection of sensations at thalamic level -Can result in very strong misinterpretations of sensation
Created by: aramos139