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302 exam Part A

QuestionAnswer
Scope all the work involved in creating the products of the project and the processes used to create them
Deliverable a product produced as part of a project, such as hardware or software, planning documents, or meeting minutes
Project scope management Project scope management includes the processes involved in defining and controlling what is or is not included in a project
Planning scope determining how the project’s scope and requirements will be managed
Collecting requirements defining and documenting the features and functions of the products produced during the project as well as the processes used for creating them
Defining scope reviewing the project charter, requirements documents, and organizational process assets to create a scope statement
Creating the WBS subdividing the major project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components
Validating scope formalizing acceptance of the project deliverables
Controlling scope controlling changes to project scope throughout the life of the project
Relative cost to correct a software defect From smallest to highest cost: Requirements Design Code Test Operation
Benchmarking generating ideas by comparing specific project practices or product characteristics to those of other projects or products inside or outside the performing organization, can also be used to collect requirements
WBS deliverable-oriented grouping of the work involved in a project that defines the total scope of the project foundation document that provides the basis for planning and managing project schedules, costs, resources, and changes
scope baseline includes the approved project scope statement and its associated WBS and WBS dictionary -Helps you sell yourself better in the org.
Approaches to developing WBS analogy approach top-down approach bottom-up approach Mind mapping Using guidelines
analogy approach Review WBSs of similar projects and tailor to your project
top-down approach Start with the largest items of the project and break them down
bottom-up approach Start with the specific tasks and roll them up
Mind-mapping approach Mind mapping is a technique that uses branches radiating out from a core idea to structure thoughts and ideas
WBS dictionary a document that describes detailed information about each WBS item
Scope validation involves formal acceptance of the completed project deliverables
Variance difference between planned and actual performance
Scope creep refers to a project that has seen its original goals expand while it's in progress.
Scope control involves controlling changes to the project scope Goal is to *influence the factors that cause scope changes *assure changes are processed according to procedures developed as part of integrated change control, and *manage changes when they occur
Best ways to avoid scope problems *Keep the scope realistic *Involve users in project scope mgmt-Assign key users to project team, give them ownership of requirements & Verification. *Follow good project management processes
Process series of actions directed toward a particular result
project management process groups initiating processes 3% (of time) planning processes 5% executing processes 69% monitoring and controlling processes 21% closing processes 2%
methodology describes how things should be done PRINCE2, Agile, RUP, and Six Sigma provide different project management methodologies
standard describes what should be done
Cultural shift Orgs struggle with the magnitude of the cultural shift required for Agile, change mgmt, need for help, and a lack of qualified people. The daily stand-up, iteration planning, and release planning are the most common. paired programming and open workspa
Project Initiaiton Initiating a project includes recognizing and starting a new project or project phase The main goal is to formally select and start off projects Stakeholder register used for stakeholder management.
kick-off meeting Held at beginning of project so that stakeholders can meet each other, review the goals of the project, and discuss future plans
milestone report can help focus on completing major milestones Lists the dates that each milestone should be achieved, who is responsible, current status, and any issues/comments.
Scrum (emphasised points) -3 software releases are better than one release. -Burndown chart is used to measure the sprints in terms of how many days/work to complete and the ideal velocity of the days/work to be completed.
Project integration management processes (1) 1. Develop project charter- Work with stakeholders to create document that formally authorizes project. 2. Develop project management plan- Coordinate planning efforts to create the document. 3. Direct and manage project work- Carrying out plan.
Project integration management processes (2) 4. Monitoring and controlling project- overseeing activities to meet performance objectives. 5. Performing integrated change control- Identify, evaluate and manage change throughout life cycle. 6. Closing project- Finalise all activities, close formaly
Methods for selecting projects -Focus on broad org. needs. -Categorising IT projects. -Performing NPV or other financial analysis. -Use weighted scoring model -Implement balanced scorecard
Focusing on broad org. needs Difficult to provide strong justification for many projects. 3 important criteria: *Is there a need *Are there funds available *Is there a strong will to make the project succeed.
SWOT Strengths weaknesses opportunities threats. EG S: Numerous contacts, strong tech skills, good sample projects. W: Little money, no marketing strategy, no website O: Industry growing, conferences T: Competition, high risk business.
Financial analysis for projects Three primary methods for determining projected financial value of projects: * NPV * ROI *Payback analysis.
NPV method of calculating the expected net monetary gain or loss from a project by discounting all expected future cash inflows and outflows to the present point in time positive NPV should be considered if financial value is a key criterion lower=bad
Payback analysis/period the amount of time it will take to recoup, in the form of net cash inflows, the total dollars invested in a project Payback occurs when the net cumulative discounted benefits equals the costs Shorter=better
Weighted scoring model A weighted scoring model is a tool that provides a systematic process for selecting projects based on many criteria higher=better
Baseline Approved PMP + Approved changes Agile is good
change control system formal, documented process that describes when and how official project documents and work may be changed Describes who is authorized to make changes and how to make them
Performing integrated change control Objectives are: *Influencing the factors that create changes to ensure that changes are beneficial *Determining that a change has occurred *Managing actual changes as they occur
Coordinating planning and excecution Those who will do the work should help plan the work- Trust your SME. Need them when you get stuck
AOA Diagram Activity on Arrow diagram Activities represented by arrows Nodes/circles are start and end points of activities. Can only show finish to start dependencies
milestone A significant event that normally has no duration It often takes several activities and a lot of work to complete a milestone They’re useful tools for setting schedule goals and monitoring progress Milestones should be SMART
Project plan Capture info Seek agreement Publish
Mandatory dependencies inherent in the nature of the work being performed on a project, sometimes referred to as hard logic
Discretionary dependencies defined by the project team., sometimes referred to as soft logic and should be used with care since they may limit later scheduling options
External dependencies involve relationships between project and non-project activities
SMART Specific Measurable Assignable Realistic Time-framed
Critical path method a network diagramming technique used to predict total project duration
critical path is the series of activities that determines the earliest time by which the project can be completed The critical path is the longest path through the network diagram and has the least amount of slack or float
Slack or float the amount of time an activity may be delayed without delaying a succeeding activity or the project finish date
Cost resource sacrificed or foregone to achieve a specific objective or something given up in exchange An indicator of aggressiveness in a company.
Project cost management includes the processes required to ensure that the project is completed within an approved budget
Planning cost management determining the policies, procedures, and documentation that will be used for planning, executing, and controlling project cost.
Estimating costs developing an approximation or estimate of the costs of the resources needed to complete a project
Determining the budget allocating the overall cost estimate to individual work items to establish a baseline for measuring performance
Controlling costs controlling changes to the project budget
Profits are revenues minus expenditures
Profit margin the ratio of revenues to profits
Life cycle costing considers the total cost of ownership, or development plus support costs, for a project
Cash flow analysis determines the estimated annual costs and benefits for a project and the resulting annual cash flow
Tangible costs or benefits those costs or benefits that an organization can easily measure in dollars
Intangible costs or benefits costs or benefits that are difficult to measure in monetary terms
Direct costs costs that can be directly related to producing the products and services of the project
Indirect costs costs that are not directly related to the products or services of the project, but are indirectly related to performing the project
Sunk cost money that has been spent in the past; when deciding what projects to invest in or continue, you should not include sunk costs
Cost management plan includes: Level of accuracy and units of measure *Organizational procedure links *Control thresholds *Rules of performance measurement Reporting formats Process descriptions
Budget Important goal is to produce a cost baseline-a time-phased budget that project managers use to measure and monitor cost performance
Project cost control *Monitoring cost performance *Ensuring that only appropriate project changes are included in a revised cost baseline *Informing project stakeholders of authorized changes to the project that will affect costs
Planning quality manasgement Identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and how to satisfy them; a metric is a standard of measurement
Performing quality assurance Periodically evaluating overall project performance to ensure the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards
Performing quality control Monitoring specific project results to ensure that they comply with the relevant quality standards
Functionality the degree to which a system performs its intended function
Features the system’s special characteristics that appeal to users
System outputs the screens and reports the system generates
Performance addresses how well a product or service performs the customer’s intended use
Reliability the ability of a product or service to perform as expected under normal conditions
Maintainability addresses the ease of performing maintenance on a product
Benchmarking generates ideas for quality improvements by comparing specific project practices or product characteristics to those of other projects or products within or outside the performing organization
quality audit structured review of specific quality management activities that help identify lessons learned that could improve performance on current or future projects
The main outputs of quality control are Acceptance decisions Rework Process adjustments
control chart graphic display of data that illustrates the results of a process over time The main use of control charts is to prevent defects, rather than to detect or reject them Quality control charts allow you to determine whether a process is in control or out o
Six Sigma a comprehensive and flexible system for achieving, sustaining, and maximizing business success. uniquely driven by close understanding of customer needs, disciplined use of facts, data, and statistical analysis, and diligent attention to managing, impro
How is Six Sigma Quality Control Unique? requires an organization-wide commitment. Training follows the “Belt” system an operating philosophy that is customer focused and strives to drive out waste, raise levels of quality, and improve financial performance at breakthrough levels
Created by: christine1