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# PBHS Physics

### Physics Data

Term | Definition |
---|---|

Branch of mechanics that deals with pure motion | kinematics |

Branch of mechanics that deals with the actions of forces in producing or changing the motion of masses | kinetics |

Branch of mechanics that deals with bodies at rest or forces in equilibrium | statics |

Deals with the motion and equilibrium of systems under the actions of forces | dynamics |

The four fundamental forces in physics | Gravity, Strong Nuclear Force, Weak Nuclear Force, Electromagnetic |

Resistance to rotational motion; It equals mass times square of perpendicular d to axis of rotation of each particle in a body (measures ability to resist changes in rotational speed) | Moment of inertia |

Torque | Force x Lever arm; produces torsion or rotation |

Elastic force of a spring; F = kx (k is the spring constant and x is the size of the displacement) | Hooke's Law |

Force between 2 charged particles is inversely squared | Coulomb's Law |

Gauss's Laws, Faraday's Law, and Ampere's Law with Maxell's correction | Maxwell's Equations |

Magnetic monopoles do not exist | Gauss's Law for magnetism |

Induced EMF in any closed circuit is equal to time rate of change of the magnetic flux (amount of magnetic field) through the circuit | Faraday's Law |

The magnetic field produced by an electric current is proportional to the strength of the current | Ampere's Law |

Force on a point charge (charged particle) due to electromagnetic fields; Force is at right angles to both direction of travel and direction of the applied field | Lorentz Law |

Total current into a point on a circuit equals total current out | Kirchoff's Current Law |

Total potential difference around a loop equals zero | Kirchoff's Voltage Law |

"induced current is always in such a direction as to oppose...change causing it"; nature abhors changes in flux | Lenz's Law |

Study of flow of gases | aerodynamics |

bouyant force is equal to weight of fluid displaced | Archimedes' Principle |

pressure change is conveyed uniformly throughout a fluid | Pascal's Law |

The faster the flow of a fluid, the lower it's internal pressure | Bernoulli's Principle |

Light Amplification by Stimulated Emissions of Radiation | LASER |

Smallest angle for total internal refraction | critical angle |

emission fo radiation as a result of absorption of other radiation | fluorescence |

single unit of EM radiation; the quantum of light and all forms of EM radiation | photon |

apparent in shift in frequency from moving source | Doppler Effect |

Light takes path between any 2 point of least time | Fermat's Principle |

Index of refraction | |

The bending of the path of a light wave as it crosses from one medium to another (air into water)caused by change in speed of wave | REfraction |

Formula describing angles of incidence and refraction | Snell's Law |

Angle between a surface and a perpendicular line | Angle of incidence |

Any point on a wave front is a source of secondary waves | Huygen's or Huygen's-Fresnel Principle |

Symbol h; proportionality of energy and frequency (of photon) | Planck's constant |

Internal energy of a system plus pressure times volume of the system;represented by 'H' | Enthalpy (H) |

H = U + PV | Enthalpy = Internal Energy plus pressure times volume of the system |

A measure of disorder | Entropy (S) |

Useful work attainable from closed system; thermodynamic potential of closed system | Helmholtz Free Energy |

Free enthalpy; thermodynamic potential at constant temp and pressure (isothermal and isobaric); describes whether or not a reaction will occur | Gibbs Free Energy |

Transition from solid directly to qas | Sublimation |

Transition from gas directly to solid | Deposition |

Starts at Absolute Zero | Kelvin Scale |

SI unit of temperature | Kelvin |

Defines freezing pt of water as zero C and and boiling pt of water as 100 C | Celsius (Centigrade) |

Water freezes at 32 and boils at 212 | Fahrenheit |

Starts at Absolute Zero BUT units equal to F degrees | Rankine scale |

Constant pressure | Isobaric |

Constant volume | Isochoric |

Constant temperature | Isothermal |

Transitive property of thermal equilibrium; If 2 thermod systems are in thermal equil. with a third, then all 3 are in thermal equil. | 0th Law of Thermodynamics (Zeroth) |

Change in internal energy is sum of heat into system and work done by system | 1st Law o Thermodynamics |

Total entropy of isolated system tends to increase over time | 2nd Law of Thermodynamics |

At absolute zero processes cease and entropy goes to zero | 3rd Law of Thermodynamics |

Internal energy of ideal gas depends only on temp. | Joule's 2nd Law |

Elementary particles with half-integer spin | Fermions |

Fundamental particles that combine to form hadrons; interact through Strong Force; fractional charge | Quarks |

Flavors of Quarks (BTW, quarks are made up of protons and neutrons) | up (+2/3), down (-1/3), top (+2/3), bottom (-2/3), charm (+2/3), strange (-1/3) |

particles with Weak Force, spin quantum number 1/2 | Leptons |

Types of Leptons | electrons, muons, neutrinos |

Elementary particles that mediate fundamental FORCES and have integer spin | Bosons |

Discrete bundle of light (electromagnetic) energy; a type of boson | Photon |

Nicknamed the "God particle" | Higgs Boson |

Announced at CERN in 2012; endows particle masses via Higgs mechanism | Higgs Boson |

CERN | European Organization for Nuclear Research |

Composite fermions | Baryons |

Particles making up the nucleus | Nucleons (protons and neutrons) |

Protons are made of which quarks? | 2 ups and 1 down (+1 charge overall |

Neutrons are made of which quarks? | 2 downs and 1 up (0 charge) |

describes how quantum state of physical system changes over time | Schrodinger Equation |

Energy radiated perunit surface area of black bodies proportional to 4th power of temperature | Stefan-Boltzmann Law |

Variance of time observation between observers depending on relative speeds of observers' frames of reference | Time Dilation |

geometric theory of gravitation; describes gravity as a geometric property of spacetime | General Relativity |

twin flies near speed of light and returns much younger than his/her twin | twin paradox |

Created by:
gkarlish