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# PBHS Physics

### Physics Data

TermDefinition
Branch of mechanics that deals with pure motion kinematics
Branch of mechanics that deals with the actions of forces in producing or changing the motion of masses kinetics
Branch of mechanics that deals with bodies at rest or forces in equilibrium statics
Deals with the motion and equilibrium of systems under the actions of forces dynamics
The four fundamental forces in physics Gravity, Strong Nuclear Force, Weak Nuclear Force, Electromagnetic
Resistance to rotational motion; It equals mass times square of perpendicular d to axis of rotation of each particle in a body (measures ability to resist changes in rotational speed) Moment of inertia
Torque Force x Lever arm; produces torsion or rotation
Elastic force of a spring; F = kx (k is the spring constant and x is the size of the displacement) Hooke's Law
Force between 2 charged particles is inversely squared Coulomb's Law
Gauss's Laws, Faraday's Law, and Ampere's Law with Maxell's correction Maxwell's Equations
Magnetic monopoles do not exist Gauss's Law for magnetism
Induced EMF in any closed circuit is equal to time rate of change of the magnetic flux (amount of magnetic field) through the circuit Faraday's Law
The magnetic field produced by an electric current is proportional to the strength of the current Ampere's Law
Force on a point charge (charged particle) due to electromagnetic fields; Force is at right angles to both direction of travel and direction of the applied field Lorentz Law
Total current into a point on a circuit equals total current out Kirchoff's Current Law
Total potential difference around a loop equals zero Kirchoff's Voltage Law
"induced current is always in such a direction as to oppose...change causing it"; nature abhors changes in flux Lenz's Law
Study of flow of gases aerodynamics
bouyant force is equal to weight of fluid displaced Archimedes' Principle
pressure change is conveyed uniformly throughout a fluid Pascal's Law
The faster the flow of a fluid, the lower it's internal pressure Bernoulli's Principle
Light Amplification by Stimulated Emissions of Radiation LASER
Smallest angle for total internal refraction critical angle
emission fo radiation as a result of absorption of other radiation fluorescence
single unit of EM radiation; the quantum of light and all forms of EM radiation photon
apparent in shift in frequency from moving source Doppler Effect
Light takes path between any 2 point of least time Fermat's Principle
Index of refraction
The bending of the path of a light wave as it crosses from one medium to another (air into water)caused by change in speed of wave REfraction
Formula describing angles of incidence and refraction Snell's Law
Angle between a surface and a perpendicular line Angle of incidence
Any point on a wave front is a source of secondary waves Huygen's or Huygen's-Fresnel Principle
Symbol h; proportionality of energy and frequency (of photon) Planck's constant
Internal energy of a system plus pressure times volume of the system;represented by 'H' Enthalpy (H)
H = U + PV Enthalpy = Internal Energy plus pressure times volume of the system
A measure of disorder Entropy (S)
Useful work attainable from closed system; thermodynamic potential of closed system Helmholtz Free Energy
Free enthalpy; thermodynamic potential at constant temp and pressure (isothermal and isobaric); describes whether or not a reaction will occur Gibbs Free Energy
Transition from solid directly to qas Sublimation
Transition from gas directly to solid Deposition
Starts at Absolute Zero Kelvin Scale
SI unit of temperature Kelvin
Defines freezing pt of water as zero C and and boiling pt of water as 100 C Celsius (Centigrade)
Water freezes at 32 and boils at 212 Fahrenheit
Starts at Absolute Zero BUT units equal to F degrees Rankine scale
Constant pressure Isobaric
Constant volume Isochoric
Constant temperature Isothermal
Transitive property of thermal equilibrium; If 2 thermod systems are in thermal equil. with a third, then all 3 are in thermal equil. 0th Law of Thermodynamics (Zeroth)
Change in internal energy is sum of heat into system and work done by system 1st Law o Thermodynamics
Total entropy of isolated system tends to increase over time 2nd Law of Thermodynamics
At absolute zero processes cease and entropy goes to zero 3rd Law of Thermodynamics
Internal energy of ideal gas depends only on temp. Joule's 2nd Law
Elementary particles with half-integer spin Fermions
Fundamental particles that combine to form hadrons; interact through Strong Force; fractional charge Quarks
Flavors of Quarks (BTW, quarks are made up of protons and neutrons) up (+2/3), down (-1/3), top (+2/3), bottom (-2/3), charm (+2/3), strange (-1/3)
particles with Weak Force, spin quantum number 1/2 Leptons
Types of Leptons electrons, muons, neutrinos
Elementary particles that mediate fundamental FORCES and have integer spin Bosons
Discrete bundle of light (electromagnetic) energy; a type of boson Photon
Nicknamed the "God particle" Higgs Boson
Announced at CERN in 2012; endows particle masses via Higgs mechanism Higgs Boson
CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research
Composite fermions Baryons
Particles making up the nucleus Nucleons (protons and neutrons)
Protons are made of which quarks? 2 ups and 1 down (+1 charge overall
Neutrons are made of which quarks? 2 downs and 1 up (0 charge)
describes how quantum state of physical system changes over time Schrodinger Equation
Energy radiated perunit surface area of black bodies proportional to 4th power of temperature Stefan-Boltzmann Law
Variance of time observation between observers depending on relative speeds of observers' frames of reference Time Dilation
geometric theory of gravitation; describes gravity as a geometric property of spacetime General Relativity
twin flies near speed of light and returns much younger than his/her twin twin paradox
Created by: gkarlish