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PBHS Astronomers

Astronomers

QuestionAnswer
(German) Polish Astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus
Wrote-- On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres, dedicated to Pope Paul III-- published on writer's death bed Copernicus
Overturned Ptolemaic astronomy by describing a heliocentric universe Copernicus
Summary of his theory, Little Commentary, incorrectly believed planets traveled in perfectly circular orbit Copernicus
Alexandrian Egyptian who proposed the geocentric (earth-centered) universe Ptolemy
Believed to have dropped weights from Leaning Tower Pisa to prove falling bodies fall at same rate. Galileo Galilei
Improved the refracting telescope and discovered the 4 largest moons of Jupiter and observed the phases of Venus Galileo
Described the law of the pendulum (the period has ONLY to do with the length of the string NOT the mass Galileo
Recanted his beliefs before the inquisition, but said, "And yet it moves" Galileo
Father of modern science Galileo
Danish astronomer; observations and measurements of heavenly bodies later interpreted by his student, Kepler Tycho Brahe
Lost his nose in a sword duel and wore a prosthetic nose of Ag or Cu for rest of his life Brahe
Major work, De nova stella; Uraniborg observatory on an island of Denmark Brahe
Used Brahe's data to formulate 3 Laws of Planetary Motion Johannes Kepler
"Planets move in elliptical orbits with the Sun at one focus" is which law? 1st Law of Planetary Motion by Kepler
"A line joining a planet and the Sun will sweep out equal areas in equal intervals of time" is which law? 2nd Law of Planetary Motion by Kepler
The square of a planet's orbital period is directly proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of its orbit is which law? 3rd Law of Planetary Motion by Kepler
Catalog of heavenly bodies called the Rudolphine Tablets Kepler
Astronomia Nova, Mysterium Cosmographicum Kepler
Hanovarian (German) born British astronomer; discovered Uranus and its largest moons, Oberon and Titania William Herschel
discovered Saturn's moons Mimas and Enceladus Herschel
Largest moons of Uranus discovered by Herschel Oberon and Titania, characters in A Midsummer Nights Dream
All of this planet's moons are names of Shakespeare's characters Uranus
He coined "asteroid" and "binary star" and proposed Milky Way shaped like a disc. Herschel
His sister, Caroline, discovered comets and nebulae Herschel
Astronomer who was a noted organist and composer Herschel
American astronomer 1889-1953 with a namesake space telescope Edwin Hubble
States that the Doppler shift (red shift) of galaxies receding from the Earth is proportional to their distance from the Earth Hubble's Law
This classifies galaxies into types Hubble Fork Diagram
Types of galaxies on the Hubblle's Tuning Fork Diagram spiral (including barred spiral), elliptical, and irregular
Proved that Andromeda was a separate galaxy from the Milky Way and discovered the first Cepheid variable stars. Hubble
Cepheid Variable stars discovered by Hubble are used for what? "Cosmic yardsticks" useful in measuring distance (periods of luminosity related to absolute luminosity
Estimated rate of expansion of the universe is the what? Hubble Constant (currently calculated at 13-14 billion years)
Apparent change in wavelength (apparent decreasing wavelength)increasing frequency caused by approaching the observer and the opposite as the source passes and moves away. Doppler Effect
Struck with ALS (Lou Gehrig's Disease)at 19 Stephen Hawking
He described the singularities of black holes in terms of general relativity; Englishman Hawking
Predicted existence of ____ radiation emitted by black holes Hawking
A Brief History of Time Hawking
Former Lucasian Chair of Mathematics at Cambridge Hawking
1st Lucasian Chair of Mathematics at Cambridge Newton
______ comet returns approximately every 76 years Halley's
African American self-taught astronomer who accurately forecast lunar and solar eclipses Benjamin Banneker
maximum mass of stable white dwarf star Chandrasekhar (Chandrasekhar calculated mathematical theory of black holes with Fowler)
point of no return boundary of a black hole event horizon
material amassed at the event horizon accretion disk
scatter graph of stars--Luminosity and Absolute Magnitude versus Temperature Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram (H-R Diagram)
The Sun's star classification A main sequence star (dwarf star--yellow)
Created by: gkarlish