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Hematology

Medical Laboratory Technology

TermDefinition
anemia a condition in which the red blood cell count or hemoglobin level is below normal; a condition resulting in decreased oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood
anticoagulant a chemical or substance that prevents blood coagulation
arteriole a small branch of an artery leading to a capillary
artery a blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the tissues
capillary a minute blood vessel that connects the smallest arteries to the smallest veins and serves as an oxygen exchange vessel
cardiopulmonary circulation the system of blood vessels that circulates blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart
complete blood count (CBC) a commonly performed grouping of hematological tests
deoxyhemoglobin the hemoglobin formed when oxyhemoglobin releases oxygen to tissues
EDTA ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; an anticoagulant commonly used in hematology
erythrocyte red blood cell; RBC
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) an anticoagulant commonly used in hematology
granulocyte a white blood cell containing granules in the cytoplasm; any of the neutrophilic
hematology the study of blood and the blood-forming tissues
hematopoietic stem cell an undifferentiated bone marrow cell that gives rise to blood cells; also called hematopoietic stem cell
hemoglobin (Hb, Hgb) the major functional component of red blood cells that is the oxygen-carrying molecule
hemopoiesis the process of blood cell formation and development; hematopoiesis
hemopoietic stem cell an undifferentiated bone marrow cell that gives rise to blood cells; also called hematopoietic stem cell
hemostasis the process of stopping bleeding
leukemia a chronic or acute disease involving unrestrained increase in leukocytes
leukocyte white blood cell; WBC
megakaryocyte a large bone marrow cell from which platelets are derived
oxyhemoglobin the form of hemoglobin that binds and transports oxygen
plasma the liquid portion of blood in which the blood cells are suspended; the straw-colored liquid remaining after blood cells are removed from anticoagulated blood
platelet a formed element in circulating blood that plays an important role in blood coagulation; a small disk-shaped fragment of cytoplasm derived from a megakaryocyte; a thrombocyte
red blood cell (RBC) blood cell that transports oxygen (O2) to tissues and carbon dioxide (CO2) to the lungs; erythrocyte
stem cell an undifferentiated cell
systemic circulation the system of blood vessels that carries blood from the heart to the tissues and back to the heart
thrombocyte a blood platelet
vein a blood vessel that carries deoxygenated blood from the tissues to the heart
venule a small vein connecting a capillary to a vein
white blood cell (WBC) blood cell that functions in immunity; leukocyte
aperture an opening
electrolyte solution a solution that contains ions and conducts an electrical current
femtoliter (fL) 10^–15 liter
fluorescent having the property of emitting light of one wavelength when exposed to light of another wavelength
histogram a graph that illustrates the size and frequency of occurrence of articles being studied
impedance resistance in an electrical circuit
index of refraction the ratio of the velocity of light in one medium
laser a narrow, intense beam of light of only one wavelength going in only one direction
mean cell hemoglobin (MCH) average red blood cell hemoglobin expressed in picograms (pg); mean corpuscular hemoglobin
mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) comparison of the weight of hemoglobin in a red blood cell to the size of the red blood cell
mean cell volume (MCV) average red blood cell volume in a blood sample
picogram 10^-12 gram
red blood cell indices calculated values that compare the size and hemoglobin content of red blood cells in a blood sample to reference values; erythrocyte indices
basophilia abnormal increase in the number of basophils in the blood; basophilic leukocytosis; also
basophilic stippling remnants of RNA and other basophilic nuclear material remaining inside the red blood cell after the nucleus is lost from the cell; small purple granules in red blood cells stained with Wright’s stain
blast cell an immature blood cell normally found only in the bone marrow
codocyte target cell
crenated cell a shrunken red blood cell with scalloped or toothed margins
drepanocyte sickle cell
elliptocyte elongated
eosinophilia abnormal increase in the number of eosinophils in the blood
folic acid a member of the B vitamin complex
Howell-Jolly body nuclear remnant remaining in red blood cells after the nucleus is lost and commonly seen in pernicious anemia and hemolytic anemias
keratocyte a red blood cell deformed by mechanical trauma
leukemia a cancer of white blood cells characterized by an abnormal increase of white blood cells and their precursors in bone marrow
neutrophilia abnormal increase in the number of neutrophils in the blood
nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) an immature red blood cell that has not yet lost its nucleus
red blood cell indices calculated values that compare the size and hemoglobin content of red blood cells in a blood sample to reference values; erythrocyte indices
schizocyte a fragmented red blood cell; formerly called schistocyte
shift to the left the appearance of an increased number of immature neutrophil forms in the peripheral blood
sickle cell crescent- or sickle-shaped red cell; drepanocyte
sickle cell disease inherited blood disorder in which red blood cells can form a sickle shape because of the presence of hemoglobin S
stomatocyte red blood cell with an elongated, mouth-shaped central area of pallor
target cell abnormal red blood cell with target appearance; codocyte
thalassemia a genetic disorder involving underproduction of the globin chains of hemoglobin and resulting in anemia
vitamin B12 a vitamin essential to the proper maturation of blood cells and other cells in the body
erythropoiesis the production of red blood cells
Miller reticle a reticle that imposes two squares over the field of view and that is used for reticulocyte counts
reticle a glass circle etched with a pattern of calibrated grids
reticulocyte an immature erythrocyte that still contains RNA remnants in the cytoplasm
reticulocytopenia a decrease below the normal number of reticulocytes in the circulating blood
reticulocytosis an increase above the normal number of reticulocytes in the circulating blood
reticulum a filamentous network
ribonucleic acid (RNA) the nucleic acid that is important in protein synthesis and that is found in all living cells
supravital stain a nontoxic dye used to stain living cells or tissues
acute phase proteins proteins that increase rapidly in plasma during acute infection and inflammation
aggregate the total substances making up a mass; a cluster or clump of particles
inflammation a nonspecific protective response to tissue injury that is initiated by the release of chemicals such as histamine and serotonin and the actions of phagocytic cells
polycythemia an excess of red blood cells in the peripheral blood
rouleau(x) group(s) of red blood cells arranged like a roll of coins
sedimentation the process of solid particles settling to the bottom of a liquid
Westergren pipet a slender pipet marked from 0 to 200 mm, used in the Westergren erythrocyte sedimentation rate method
Wintrobe tube a slender, thick-walled tube used in the Wintrobe erythrocyte sedimentation rate
azidemethemoglobin a stable compound formed when azide combines with hemoglobin
cyanmethemoglobin a stable colored compound formed when hemoglobin is reacted with Drabkin’s reagent; hemiglobincyanide (HiCN)
Drabkin’s reagent a hemoglobin diluting reagent that contains iron
globin the protein portion of the hemoglobin molecule
heme the iron-containing portion of the hemoglobin molecule
hemiglobincyanide (HiCN) cyanmethemoglobin
hemoglobin (Hb, Hgb) the major functional component of red blood cells that is the oxygen-carrying molecule
buffy coat a light-colored layer of white blood cells and platelets that forms on top of the red blood cell layer when a sample of blood is centrifuged or allowed to stand undisturbed
capillary tube a slender glass or plastic tube used in laboratory procedures
hematocrit the volume of red blood cells packed by centrifugation in a given volume of blood and expressed as a percentage; packed cell volume (PCV)
microhematocrit a hematocrit performed in capillary tubes using a small quantity of blood; packed cell volume (PCV)
microhematocrit centrifuge an instrument that spins capillary tubes at a high speed to rapidly separate cellular components of the blood from the liquid portion of blood
packed cell column the layers of blood cells that form when a tube of whole blood is centrifuged
cell diluting fluid a solution used to dilute blood for cell counts
hemacytometer a heavy glass slide made to precise specifications and used to count cells microscopically; a counting chamber
hemacytometer coverglass a special coverglass of uniform thickness used with a hemacytometer
micropipet a pipet that measures or holds 1 mL or less
anemia a condition in which the red blood cell count or blood hemoglobin level is below normal; a condition resulting in decreased oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood
aperture an opening
erythrocytosis an excess of red blood cells in the peripheral blood; sometimes called polycythemia
hemolysis the rupture or destruction of red blood cells
immunity resistance to disease or infection
isotonic solution a solution with the same concentration of dissolved particles as the solution or cell with which it is compared
leukemia a cancer of white blood cells characterized by an abnormal increase of white blood cells and their precursors in bone marrow
leukocytosis increase above normal in the number of leukocytes (white blood cells) in the blood
leukopenia decrease below normal in the number of leukocytes (white blood cells) in the blood; leukocytopenia
immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) a blood disorder characterized by purpura in skin and mucous membranes and low platelet count caused by the destruction of platelet by antiplatelet autoantibodies; also called idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.
petri dish a shallow, round covered dish made of plastic or glass primarily used to culture microorganisms
thrombocytopenia abnormally low number of platelets in the blood
thrombocytosis abnormally high number of platelets in the blood; thrombocythemia
thromboembolism blockage of a blood vessel by a clot (thrombus) that formed in another vessel
azurophilic a term used to describe the reddish-purple staining characteristics of certain cells or cell structures; having an affinity for azure stain
band cell an immature granulocyte with a nonsegmented nucleus; a “stab cell”
basophil a white blood cell containing basophilic-staining granules in the cytoplasm
basophilic blue in color; having affinity for the basic stain
eosinophil a white blood cell containing eosinophilic granules in the cytoplasm
erythrocyte red blood cell; RBC
leukocyte white blood cell; WBC
lymphocyte a small basophilic-staining white blood cell having a round or oval nucleus and playing a vital role in the immune process
megakaryocyte a large bone marrow cell from which platelets are derived
monocyte a large white blood cell usually having a convoluted or horseshoe-shaped nucleus
neutrophil a white blood cell containing neutral-staining cytoplasmic granules and a segmented nucleus; also called polymorphonuclear cell (PMN)
platelet a formed element in circulating blood that plays an important role in blood coagulation; a small diskshaped fragment of cytoplasm derived from a megakaryocyte; a thrombocyte
red blood cell (RBC) blood cell that transports oxygen (O2) to tissues and carbon dioxide (CO2) to the lungs; erythrocyte
vacuole a membrane-bound compartment in cell cytoplasm
white blood cell (WBC) blood cell that functions in immunity; leukocyte
anisocytosis marked variation in the sizes of erythrocytes
atypical lymphocyte lymphocyte that occurs in response to viral infections and that is common in infectious mononucleosis; reactive lymphocyte
differential count a determination of the relative numbers of each type of white blood cell when a specified number (usually 100) is counted; white blood cell differential count; leukocyte differential count
hypochromic having reduced color or hemoglobin content
macrocytic having a larger-than-normal cell size
microcytic having a smaller-than-normal cell size
normochromic having normal color
normocytic having a normal cell size
phagocytosis the engulfing of a foreign particle or cell by another cell
poikilocytosis significant variation in the shape of red blood cells
reactive lymphocyte lymphocyte that occurs in response to viral infections and that is common in infectious mononucleosis; reactive lymphocyte
adhesion the act of two parts or surfaces sticking together
aggregation the collecting of separate objects into one mass
arteriosclerosis abnormal thickening and hardening of the arterial walls causing loss of elasticity and impaired blood circulation
atherosclerosis a form of arteriosclerosis in which lipids calcium cholesterol and other substances deposit on the inner walls of the arteries
coagulation the process of forming a fibrin clot
coagulation factors a group of plasma proteins (and the mineral calcium) involved in blood clotting
collagen a protein connective tissue found in skin bone ligaments and cartilage
Coumadin an anticoagulant drug derived from coumarin that is administered orally to prevent blood clotting or to reduce the risk of clots; a trade name for warfarin
D-dimer the smallest cross-linked fibrin degradation fragment formed from the breakdown of polymerized fibrin by plasmin
embolus (pl. emboli) a mass (clot) of blood or foreign matter carried in the circulation
endothelium the layer of epithelial cells that lines blood vessels and the serous cavities of the body
FDPs fibrinogen or fibrin monomer degradation products formed when plasmin cleaves fibrinogen or fibrin monomers into protein fragments; formerly called fibrin split products
fibrin a protein formed from fibrinogen by the action of thrombin
fibrinogen a plasma protein produced in the liver and converted to fibrin through the action of thrombin
fibrinolysis enzymatic breakdown of a blood clot
glycoprotein a protein molecule having a carbohydrate component
hemorrhage uncontrolled bleeding
hemostasis the process of stopping bleeding which includes clot formation and dissolution
heparin an anticoagulant used therapeutically to prevent thrombosis; also used as an anticoagulant in certain laboratory procedures
inhibitor a substance that retards or stops a process or chemical reaction
intravascular within the blood vessels
ionized calcium in the body a mineral that plays an important role in hemostasis
megakaryocyte a large bone marrow cell from which platelets are derived
plasmin an enzyme that binds to fibrin and initiates breakdown of the fibrin clot (fibrinolysis)
plasminogen the inactive precursor of plasmin
prothrombin the precursor of thrombin; factor II
sequestered isolated or set apart from the whole
thrombin a protein formed from prothrombin by the action of thromboplastin and other factors in the presence of calcium ions; factor IIa
thromboplastin a lipoprotein found in endothelium and other tissue; coagulation factor III; also called tissue factor
thrombus (pl. thrombi) a blood clot that obstructs a blood vessel
vasoconstriction narrowing of the diameter of a blood vessel
warfarin an anticoagulant drug taken to prevent blood clotting or to reduce the risk of clots
XDPs degradation products formed by plasmin action on cross-linked fibrin and containing the D-dimer fragment
disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) a bleeding disorder characterized by widespread thrombotic and secondary fibrinolytic reactions
epistaxis nosebleed
hemophilia a bleeding disorder resulting from a hereditary coagulation factor deficiency or dysfunction
immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) a blood disorder characterized by purpura in skin and mucous membranes and low platelet count caused by the destruction of platelets by antiplatelet autoantibodies; also called idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
NSAIDs acronym for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
petechiae small purplish hemorrhagic spots on the skin; very small purpura
purpura purple-colored areas that can occur in the skin or mucous membranes or organs and that are caused when small blood vessels leak
recombinant referring to molecules or cells created as a result of genetic engineering
thrombocytopathy abnormal platelet function
thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) a blood disorder with varied causes and characterized by formation of clots in the small vessels and consumption of platelets and skin purpura
von Willebrand’s disease (vWD) an inherited platelet disorder associated with decreased platelet adhesion and a bleeding tendency
activated clotting time (ACT) a test that assesses the effect of heparin on the ability of blood to clot
heparin an anticoagulant used therapeutically to prevent thrombosis; also used as an anticoagulant in certain laboratory procedures
enzyme a protein that causes or accelerates changes in other substances without being changed itself
hypercoagulation a greater tendency than normal for blood to coagulate
international normalized ratio (INR) a way of reporting a prothrombin time that takes into consideration the sensitivity of the prothrombin thromboplastin reagent used and the mean prothrombin time of a normal population
international sensitivity index (ISI) a value assigned to each lot of prothrombin thromboplastin reagent to compensate for variations in sensitivities of thromboplastin from different sources
prothrombin ratio a comparison of a patient’s prothrombin time result with the mean prothrombin time of a normal population
prothrombin time test a coagulation screening test used to monitor oral anticoagulant therapy
vitamin K a vitamin essential for production of coagulation factors II VII IX and X
activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) the time required for a fibrin clot to form when CaCl2 is added to citrated plasma that has been activated with partial thromboplastin reagent
partial thromboplastin the lipid portion of thromboplastin available as a commercial preparation; formerly called cephaloplastin
D-dimer the smallest cross-linked fibrin degradation fragment formed from the breakdown of polymerized fibrin by plasmin
deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurrence of a thrombus within a deep vein usually of the leg or pelvis
disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) a hemostasis emergency characterized by widespread circulatory thrombotic events coexisting with fibrinolytic events
agglutination the clumping or aggregation of particulate antigens resulting from reaction with specific antibody
allergy a condition resulting from an exaggerated immune response; hypersensitivity
anamnestic response rapid increase in blood immunoglobulins following a second exposure to an antigen; also called booster response or secondary response
antibody (Ab) protein that is induced by and reacts specifically with a foreign substance (antigen); immunoglobulin
antigen (Ag) foreign substance that induces an immune response by causing production of antibodies and or sensitized lymphocytes that react specifically with that substance; immunogen
autoimmune disease disease caused when the immune response is directed at one’s own tissues (selfantigens)
B lymphocyte (B cell) the type of lymphocyte primarily responsible for the humoral immune response
cell-mediated immunity immunity provided by T lymphocytes and cytokines
complement a group of plasma proteins that can be activated in immune reactions and can cause cell lysis and can help initiate the inflammatory response
cytokines any of various nonantibody proteins secreted by cells of the immune system and that help regulate the immune response; lymphokines
dendritic cells cells in lymphoid tissues that form a network to trap foreign antigens
enzyme immunoassay (EIA) an assay that uses an enzyme-labeled antibody as a reactant
epitope the portion of an antigen that reacts specifically with an antibody; antigenic determinant
humoral immunity immunity provided by B lymphocytes and antibodies
immunocompetent capable of producing a normal immune response
immunocompromised having reduced ability or inability to produce a normal immune response
immunoglobulins (Ig) antibodies; proteins that are induced by and react specifically with antigens (immunogens)
immunology the branch of medicine encompassing the study of the immune processes and immunity
immunosuppression suppression of the immune response by physical or chemical or biological means
inflammation a nonspecific protective response to tissue injury that is initiated primarily by the release of chemicals such as histamine and serotonin and by the actions of phagocytic cells
lymphokines nonantibody proteins produced by lymphocytes in response to antigen stimulation and that play a role in regulating the immune response; cytokines
macrophages long-lived phagocytic tissue cells that are derived from blood monocytes and function in destruction of foreign antigens and serve as antigen-presenting cells
monoclonal antibody antibody derived from a single cell line or clone
plasma cell a differentiated B lymphocyte that produces antibodies
polyclonal antibodies antibodies derived from more than one cell line
precipitation formation of an insoluble antigen–antibody complex
primary lymphoid organs organs in which B and T lymphocytes acquire their special characteristics (in humans the bone marrow and thymus)
secondary lymphoid tissue tissues in which lymphocytes are concentrated such as the spleen and lymph nodes and tonsils
seroconversion the appearance of antibody in the serum or plasma of an individual following exposure to an antigen
serology the study of antibodies and antigens in serum or plasma using immunological methods
T lymphocyte (T cell) the type of lymphocyte responsible for the cell-mediated immune response
thymus a gland located in the upper chest that is the primary lymphoid tissue in which lymphocytes mature and acquire T cell characteristics
titer in serology the reciprocal of the highest dilution that gives the desired reaction; the concentration of a substance determined by titration
chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) a syndrome characterized by prolonged fatigue and other nonspecific symptoms and for which the cause remains unknown
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) a virus that infects lymphocytes and is the cause of infectious mononucleosis
hepatosplenomegaly enlargement of the liver and spleen
heterophile antibodies a group of multispecific antibodies that are increased in infectious mononucleosis and that react with heterogeneous antigens not responsible for their production
incubation period the time elapsed between exposure to an infectious agent and the appearance of symptoms
infectious mononucleosis (IM) a contagious viral disease occurring in primarily the 15- to 25-year-old age-group and caused by infection with Epstein-Barr virus
latent dormant; in an inactive or hidden phase
lymphadenopathy a condition in which the lymph glands are enlarged or swollen
lymphocytosis an increase above the normal number of lymphocytes in the blood
arthritis inflammation of the joints due to several causes
autoantibody an antibody directed against self (one’s own tissues)
reciprocal inverse; one of a pair of numbers (as 2/3 and 3/2) that has a product of one
rheumatoid arthritis (RA) an autoimmune disease characterized by pain and inflammation and deformity of the joints
rheumatoid factors (RFs) autoantibodies directed against the Fc fragment of human immunoglobulin G (IgG) and often present in the serum of patients with rheumatoid arthritis
scleroderma a systemic or localized autoimmune connective tissue disease characterized by a chronic hardening (sclero) of skin (derma) and connective tissue
Sjögren’s syndrome a systemic autoimmune disease affecting moisture-producing glands such as tears and sweat and saliva glands but also affecting organs
synovial of or relating to the lubricating fluid of the joints
agglutination inhibition interference with or prevention of agglutination
ectopic pregnancy development of fetus outside the uterus; extrauterine pregnancy
hemagglutination the agglutination of red blood cells
human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) the hormone of pregnancy produced by the placenta; also called uterine chorionic gonadotropin (uCG)
implantation attachment of the early embryo to the uterus
teratogenic relating to a substance or agent capable of leading to birth defects by causing change or harm to a fetus or embryo or interfering with normal fetal development
trophoblastic relating to embryonic nutritive tissue
American Association of Blood Banks (AABB) international association that sets blood bank standards accredits blood banks and promotes high standards of performance in the practice of transfusion medicine
apheresis the process of removing a specific component such as platelets from donor blood and returning the remaining blood components to donor circulation
blood bank clinical laboratory department where blood components are tested and stored until needed for transfusion; also called immunohematology department or transfusion services; the refrigerated unit used for storing blood components
immunohematology the study of the human blood groups; in the clinical laboratory often called blood banking or transfusion services
transplant living tissue placed into the body; the placing of living tissue into the body
allele one of two (or more) forms of a gene responsible for genetic variation
antiserum serum that contains antibodies
blood bank clinical laboratory department where blood components are tested and stored until needed for transfusion; also called immunohematology department or transfusion services; the refrigerated unit used for storing blood components
blood group antibody a protein (immunoglobulin) that reacts specifically with a blood group antigen
blood group antigen a substance or structure on the red blood cell membrane that stimulates antibody formation and reacts with that antibody
codominant in genetics a gene that is expressed in the heterozygous state that is in the presence of a different allelic gene
forward grouping the use of known antisera (antibodies) to detect unknown antigens on a patient’s cells; forward typing; direct grouping
genes segments of DNA that code for specific proteins and that are the structural units of heredity
histocompatibility testing assays to determine if donor and recipient tissue are compatible
human leukocyte antigen (HLA) one of several antigens present on leukocytes and other body cells that are important in transplant rejection
major histocompatibility complex (MHC) the group of genes responsible for producing antigens such as HLA that are important in organ and tissue transplants
reverse grouping the use of known cells (antigens) to identify unknown antibodies in the patient’s serum or plasma
serological centrifuge a centrifuge that spins small tubes such as those used in blood banking; serofuge
allele one of two (or more) forms of a gene responsible for genetic variation
anti–human globulin test a sensitive test that uses a commercial anti-human globulin reagent to detect human globulin coated on red blood cells; antiglobulin test; Coombs’ test
feto-maternal hemorrhage (FMH) the occurrence of fetal blood cells entering into the maternal circulation before or during delivery
genotype the genetic makeup of a cell or organism
hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) a condition in which maternal antibody targets fetal red blood cells for destruction
phenotype the observable characteristics in a cell or organism as determined both by genetic makeup and environmental factors
Rh D immune globulin (RhIG) a concentrated purified solution of human anti-D antibody used for injection
Created by: karenzahoruk