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Lab animal

Lab animal information for vet techs

Characteristics of Research Animals? -small -easy to handle -short life span -short gestation period -large litter size
Types of research animals? mice, rats, zebrafish, drosophila (flies), nematodes (worms), 80% rodents-of that 60% mice
Types of research lab animals involved in? inheritance, cancer, tissue transplants, understanding body & behaviour
why use inbred mice? results then do not vary within the species, eg. strain background, then need fewer animals and less time/cost of experiment.
How long does it take for an inbred strain to be developed? 5 + years
Can you duplicate an inbred strain? no, this means that once you lose the strain it is lost forever and if you were in the middle of an experiment-say goodbye to you research because you will have to start over.
Housing environment-animal flora? Can control flora to get rid of harmful ones to animal health and to get rid of ones that disrupt research
What are transgenic breeds? they contain the DNA of unrelated organisms that have been artificially introduced.
Transgenic process? 2 fertile animal produce an embryo and a transgene is added to the nucleus of the embryo. This embryo is implanted into a pseudo pregnant individual (from mating of sterile couple) and this individual produces transgenic offspring.
knock in gene gene sequence is added at a particular locus of a DNA sequence to create a new individual. transgenic
knock out gene target gene is disrupted or inactivated, loss of that gene activity which changes the phenotype (look)of the animal.
When did lab animal research become a regulated system and what act? In 2000, gene technology act to ensure personal and community risks are reduced.
What are the 4 Levels of Containment? PC1-no risk to operator or community PC2-no risk operator, perceived risk community PC3-risk to operator and community PC4-high risk to operator and community
Variable to consider in animal housing-new house? -accepted health status (from open to SPF to gnotobiotic-germ free), consistent environment-light, temp, bedding, nesting & consistent diet
Why use Zebrafish? -fecund-produce lots of embryos -embryos are free living -fast embryonic development -technology to manipulate their genes is rapid and cheap -optical transparency -genetic similarity to humans -permeability to water borne chemicals
Difference between zebrafish & mice? fish-outside embryos, compared to mice- in utero, chemical uptake from water (fish)to chemicals given to mother, mice need surgery for tissue transplants-direct for fish, observation-real time for fish whereas fixed direct for mice m-model f-phenotype
What areas are zebrafish standards lacking in? health monitoring, water quality and nutrition
General standards for keeping zebrafish? 10 fish/litre 28.5 degrees Celsius-water, room-24 14/10 hrs light/dark like monsoonal <0.02 NH3, <50 NO3, <0.1 NO2 barren tanks
Peak Zebrafish production? 6-12months (just after reach sex maturity) 1yr-tail is off live for 18-24months
Life stages of Zebrafish? Embryo (0), alevin (4), Fry (9), Fingerling (28) and adult (60)
Rotifers? -feed on microalgae -gut loadable nutrition -common in commercial -easy to culture -marine so cant establish in a system This is in comparison to a paramecium
Paramecium? Bacteriovore limited nutrition common in hobby's easy to culture freshwater so can be established in a system
Alevin lifestage? swim bladder enlarges exogenous feeding starts
Zebrafish health maintenance? -daily mortality check -weekly health inspection -weekly scheduled terminations -constant water quality checks -2x daily CSL equipment checks
Disease Control-conventional? for zebrafish -horizontal transmission (fish-fish) by checking aquarium design, embryo bleaching, new animal isolation, tank change limits -vertical transmission (mother-fry) -pathology testing by early detection of disease and options for facility isolation
import disease control for zebrafish -quarantine? -if lifetime-for first 7 days interactions recorded on QTR's and only offspring allows to be removed from area by QAD approval -for post release-they are tracked and monitored by whole tank
Recirculating Aquaculture Systems-benefits and limitations? Benefits- self contained, more control over environment, increased biosecurity, minimal water exchange limitations-water quality-bio,chem,mechanical filtration
Controlling water quality? -life support condition -source of water: municipal-town, reverse osmosis or natural -effluent processing
Important water quality factors? pH-7.5, temp 28.5, CaCO3 >100 DO >6, sality 0.25-0.75, conductivity target 300-1200, hardness tolerance-Ca, Mg, HCO3, CO3
Municipal water benefits and limits? Benefits-cheaper, available, minimal waste, optional culture use Limits-government regulations on quality, limited pathogen control, limited control over culture condition, needs pre-treatment
Reverse Osmosis water benefits and limits? Benefits-user specified product quality, good pathogen control, good culture control over condition Limits-equipment, higher cost, needs conditioning with sea salt (to increase CaCO3 and conductivity) & hardness generators (increase pH), increased waste
Effluent process? Holding tanks-mechanical filtration-biological filtration-oxygenation & CO2 removal-chemical filtration-disinfection. cycle
What is Mechanic filtration? -removes solids -allows healthy biofilter growth -increases disinfection efficiency -considerations-whether it isolates or removes the waste (welfare consideration), consumables, technical skill for operators, automation-cost
What is Biological filtration? -dedicated media -media allows bacteria growth by providing a substrate -these bacteria breakdown waste products
2 types of bacteria in biological filtration hetertrophic-use dissolved carbonaceous material chemosynthetic-use ammonia and nitrite and are 5 times slower
Ammonia as a waste in fish? excrete waste as ammonia NH3 through gills and it flows down its concentration gradient to outside environment, if outside is greater than >0.05ppm then it is toxic to the fish due to this gradient
What is Chemical filtration? Dissolved wastes are harder to remove, so use activated carbon or foam fractionation/protein skimming.
What is activated carbon-chemical filtration? -uses process of adsorption to trap pollutants in the carbon substrate pore structure. Removes Cl, Cu (copper), dissolved organic compounds and colloidal solids
What is protein skimming-chemical filtration? uses process of adsorption, hydrophobic pollutants bind to microbubbles-air or ozone and rise in a column to the top where form foam that is dislodged into a foam stream.
Disinfection-water for zebrafish? -reduces micro-organism populations -uses UV or Ozone -UV only stops reproductivity, has a short effectiveness time -ozone is more effective than UV, but higher risk which can be reduced if it is used in a skimmer
What is UQBR? -lab animal housing and care facility -animal importation services -transgenic services -tissue collections -embryo rederivations -colony management
Role of Vet Tech in UQBR? -assist researcher -know basic technical procedures for animal life -know the lab and animal health technical procedures -maintain/manage the colony -husbandry, colony management, facility management & technical procedures
Husbandry? -sexing -identifying pregnancy -basics: food water etc -necropsies -restraint -provide enrichment -health checks
Common Health Problems? -ringtail -barbering (missing bits of hair) -malocclusion (very long teeth) -ulcerative dermatitis -prolapse (red and inflamed vagina) -fight wounds -abnormal enlarged bladder -tumor -dwarfism -hydrocephaly (enlarged brain due to fluid)
Colony Management? -monitor breeder performance -replace breeders if needed -keep reserve breeders -follow a breeding protocol -produce required animal numbers -reduce wastage-protocol (replace, reduce, refine) -maintain colony: genetic control -raise concerns
3 R's in Colony Management? -replace -reduce -refine
Facility Operations? -dirty cages need to be knocked out -cages washed, then autoclaved -stores topped -lots of water bottles filled -clean cages need bedding
Technical procedures? -injections (IP,IM,SC,IV) -blood collection (saphenous vein-leg, dorsal pedal vein-paw, retro-orbital bleed, cardiac puncture, sub mandibular -euthanasia (CO2, cervical dislocation, lethabarb) -tissue collection- ear notch and toeing-identification
Why do we need record keeping? -legislative reason -research requirement -welfare reason
UQBR Supervisor role? -assist in overall facility management -staff/student supervision -specialized animal husbandry & surgical procedures -ensure biosecurity -general husbandry -assist handling courses -provide reports on operational activities -monitor AEEC no. etc
Why do we need lab rodent anaesthesia? -immobilization -muscle relaxation -unconsciousness
When do we use anaesthesia and what are the considerations? -husbandry and experiments -considerations-animal welfare AEC approval - length - depth - research outcome requirements - recovery or terminal
Types of anaesthesia? -general (gas or injection) -local (topical like emia or injection)
Advantages and disadvantages of general gas anaesthesia? Advantages: oxygen administration during anaesthesia, accurate control over depth, rapid induction and recovery disadvantages: specialized equipment, good ventilation and scavenging system, requires training.
Advantages and disadvantages of general injection anaesthesia? advantages: minimal equipment, rapid induction, titratable dosing, some reversible disadvantages: predetermined dose, need good restraint, individual variation, slow absorption in non IV routes
Anaesthetic Monitoring? -limited equipment -anaesthetic depth -reflexes -muscle tone -body temp -hydration -respiration -mm colour
What are the two types of analgesia used? -NSAIDs -Opioids
Common disease continued? -bacteria or viruses -extoparasites: shown by bite marks with lines on stomach area where inhabit -endoparasites: worms
What law are lab animal specifically ruled under? Australian code of practice for the care and use of animals for scientific purposes
What is humane killing and euthanasia? Humane killing-ending a life with no top pain and stress Euthanasia-humane killing that is in the welfare interests of the individual and to alleviate pain and stress
When is humane killing used? -at the end of the study when need to obtain tissue samples -when the animal can no longer be used for breeding purposes -when stock are not suitable or not required
When is euthanasia used? -when pain or stress levels of animal expected to exceed normal levels and cant prevent -health and wellbeing concern
Recommended euthanasia? -CO2 -sodium pentobarbitone (lethabarb)
Accepted euthanasia but with reservations? -isofluorine -cervical dislocation -decapitation -stunning
Not accepted euthanasia? -CO -Nitrogen -chloroform -microwave irradiation -ether -hydrogen cyanide -decompression -rapid freezing
Euthanasia Considerations? -avoid distress -produce rapid unconsciousness -reliable, reproducible, irreversible -appropriate for age and species -minimum restraint -code of practice legislation requirements -compatible to study -simple- administer -safe- operator
Main Codes governing use of animals in lab?- in QLD -QLD animal care and protection act 2001 -Australian code care and use of animals science research -code of practice for the care and housing of lab mice, rats, guinea pigs and rabbits -NHMRC CODES
what do the 3 Rs mean-replace, reduce, refine? Replace- try and obtain results and purpose of experiment without the use of animals Reduce-reduce no of animals use, but so still have comparable results and same amt of info Refine: minimize pain and enhance wellbeing
Animal Ethics? -actions are considered right or wrong -determines what can and cant do in research experiments (as unethical) -need to apply for approval -animal cruelty and protection act 2001 AEC chairman, vet, researcher, welfare person and no associate
Created by: sherloki