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OT Physdis

Vision 1

Vision
Vision provides -Info about environment -Alerts us to danger -Anticipatory- allows planning (critical for our ability to adapt) -Adaptation (static vs dynamic environment) -Fast and reliable -People let go of vision use what they have (even if nothing left)
System- light enters cornea -goes through lens to hit the retina (visual receptor) -fovea (in the macula in the retina)has rods and cones for acuity -goes to the nerve to the chiasm to the tract -to the lat gen nuc in thalamus via optic radiations -to primary visual cortext where infor is recognized and shared with occipital -to pariatal, pretemporal, and frontal area
Visual perceptual hierarchy 1 -adaptation-(highest level) (needs cognition) Visual cognition( interprets visual info-)(manip. objects in brain to make sense of them) Visual memory (map s/t in mind youv seen before-categorize,recall, and store info so you can recognize it. ex- know its a pen) pattern recognition (identify salient (sig) feat so then you see whole ex see the shape of the pen) Visual scanning- ( scan for detail or scan room for objects (1) automatic-get the whole picture (2) voluntary- specific such as signs ticketbooth) Visual attention (critical skill - what you attend to depends on visual info you get (1)focal attention-find s1 specific (2)peripheral attention - to get over to the person
Visual perceptual hierarchy2- foundation skills- necessary for vision occulomotor control( control movement of eyesso stable and brain gets info) visual field (how much you see straight ahead- the whole picture) visual acuity (how clearly you see)( size/ contrast/ color) If don't have these skills you won't have an image in CNS= blindness if there is an impairment in one of these skills your vision will be faulty
Role of the OT -look at how vision affects occupational performance -functional significance is that person will interact differently wit the environment--need to find underlying problem
Deficits in visual acuity disruption of focusing of image on retina ( myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, cataracts-spots) inability of retina to process image 2 damage((1) age related -macdegen, glaucoma (2) systemic disease- diabetic retinopathy) inability of optic nerve to transmit(optic atrophy after head injury) contrast acuity (street curb and gutter-black/black ppl with MS have problems with this)
Screening for Visual Acuity Size and Symmetry Pupil response to light eye dominance( tube/cross hand small hole) Acuity/snellen chart and clinical observation contrast acuity (with water or coffee white mug) color vision
Occulomotor function need to maintain foviation( putting objects in line of sight)for Binocular vision/sensory fusion- (each eye sends a message to brain but brain interprets it as one) complex extensive inegration (int of dif parts of brain and nerves- damage results in occulomotor dysfunction)
Occulomotor Movement Saccades- (jump from one object to another)(changes line of sight) Tracking/Smooth persuit-(focused on one object even when head and body move/ or if object moves)( line of sight stays the same ) Diplopia-( eyes look in different directionsimages aren't fused)( double vision)
Functional problems of occulomotor dysfunction postural motor control will be off can't identify things quickly hard to accomodate from far to close vision fine motor problems/headachs/reading to reduce person may 1) close an eye 2)adapt a fixed head image Dysfunction usually seen with TBI
Occulomotor dysfunction screening -Eye alignment (look for light spot in eye- symmetry) -Binocular eye movement- ( 9 cardinal points) -Convergence ( bring light close to face)
Clinical observation of occulomotor dysfunction( trying to decrease dbl vision) -complain of blurry -head fixation -shut eye or tilt head -squint of blink a lot -complain of headache or eye fatigue when looking at s/t near by
Created by: natkat