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302 exam Part B

exam notes

1995 Standish Group study (CHAOS) found that... only 16.2% of IT projects were successful in meeting scope, time, and cost goals; over 31% of IT projects were canceled before completion
Advantages of Using Formal Project Management Better control of financial, physical, and human resources Improved customer relations Shorter development times Lower costs Higher quality and increased reliability Higher profit margins Improved productivity/morale Better internal coordination
Project a temporary endeavour undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result Cannot be run in isolation-They are run in context!
Operations work done to sustain the busines
Project Attributes has a unique purpose is temporary, involves uncertainty is developed using progressive elaboration requires resources should have a primary customer or sponsor involves uncertainty
Project sponsor The project sponsor usually provides the direction and funding for the project
Project managers work with project sponsors, project team, and other people involved in a project to meet project goals strive to meet the triple constraint and also facilitate the entire process to meet the needs and expectations of project stakeholders
Program group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing them individually Program managers oversee programs; often act as bosses for project managers
Triple constraint of PM Scope goal Cost goal Time goal -Very traditional way of measuring projects, not the best measure of success
Project management “the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements”
Ten Knowledge areas *key competencies that project managers must develop 1.Scope mgmt 2. Time mgmt 3. Cost mgmt 4. Quality mgmt 5. HR mgmt 6. Communications mgmt 7. Risk mgmt 8. Procurement mgmt 9. Stakeholder mgmt 10. All these are part of Project Integration Mgmt
Project Stakeholders people involved in or affected by project activities. the project sponsor the project manager the project team support staff customers users suppliers opponents to the project
PM Tools and techniques assist project managers and their teams in various aspects of PM. SCOPE: Project charter, scope statement, WBS. TIME:Gantt charts, network diagrams, critical path analysis, critical chain scheduling. COST: Cost estimates and earned value mgmt
Super tools high potential for improving project success Progress reports Kick-off meetings Gantt charts Change requests PM Software Scope statements Requirements analyses Lessons-learned reports
Why are projects improving? and better skilled project managers with better management processes are being used
Project Success Defined by: The project met scope, time, cost goals It satisfied the customer/sponsor Met its main objective, such as making or saving a certain amount of money, providing a good return on investment, or simply making the sponsors happy
What helps projects succeed? 1. User involvement 2. Executive support 3. Clear business objectives 4. Emotional maturity 5. Optimizing scope 6. Agile process 7. Project management expertise 8. Skilled resources 9. Execution 10. Tools and infrastructure
project portfolio management orgs manage projects and programs as a portfolio of investments that contribute to the entire enterprise’s success
Portfolio managers help their organizations make wise investment decisions by helping to select and analyze projects from a strategic perspective
Best practice an optimal way recognized by industry to achieve a stated goal or objective
Important skills for PMs 1. People skills 2. Leadership 3. Listening 4. Integrity, ethics, consistency 5. Building trust 6. Communication 7. Building teams 8. Conflict resolution & management 9. Critical thinking, problem solving 10. Understands, balances priorities
Leader focuses on long-term goals and big-picture objectives while inspiring people to reach those goals manager deals with the day-to-day details of meeting specific goals Effective managers provide leadership by example. PM= Leader + Manager
System thinking Taking a holistic view of carrying out projects within the context of the organization. The way project managers should think about projects.
Systems approach analytical approach to management and problem solving Three parts: Systems philosophy Systems analysis Systems management
Systems philosophy an overall model for thinking about things as systems
Systems analysis problem-solving approach
Systems management address business, technological, and organizational issues before making changes to systems
Three sphere model for systems management Model which includes the business, organisation and technoogy aspects of management. Eg--- Business: What will it cost? Org: How will it affect employees? Tech: Should it be ms or apple?
Perspectives on organisations Structural Human resources Political Symbolic
Structural perspective roles and responsibilities, coordination and control. Org charts help describe this.
HR perspective Providing harmony between needs of org and needs of ppl.
Political perspective Coalitions composed of varied individuals and interest groups. Conflict and power are key issues.
Symbolic perspective Symbols and meanings related to events. Culture, language, traditions and image are all parts of this.
Organisational structures three basic structures. Functional Project Matrix
Functional structure functional managers report to the CEO
Project structure program managers report to the CEO
Matrix structure middle ground between functional and project structures; personnel often report to two or more bosses; structure can be weak, balanced, or strong matrix
Organisational Culture a set of shared assumptions, values, and behaviours that characterize the functioning of an organization Great need for org commitment to IT, negative attitude will= project failures. CIO helps. Assigning non-IT ppl to IT projects encourages commitment
Ten characteristics of org culture Member identity* Group emphasis* People focus Unit integration* Control Risk tolerance* Reward criteria* Conflict tolerance* Means-ends orientation Open-systems focus* * Need to be high for project success
Top management Top management are key stakeholders in projects Their level of commitment is v/important in helping managers lead projects successfully. Provide adequate resources Approve unique needs in a timely manner Mentor on leadership issues
Champion Senior manager who acts as a key proponent for a project.
IT Governance addresses the authority and control for key IT activities in organizations, including IT infrastructure, IT use, and project management
Organisational standards. Standards and guidelines help project managers be more effective Eg. Use of standard forms and software for PM Development & use of guidelines for writing project plans/ status info Creation of a PM office or center of excellence
Created by: christine1