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Phys Spring 5: Lec 2

Female Repro

QuestionAnswer
Trace the path of an egg out of the female body Ovary --> (ovulation) --> oviduct, uterus --> cervix --> vagina
What envelops the ovary? folds & fimbriae of the oviduct, and the broad ligament
What is the benefit of enveloping the ovary by other tissues? Prevents [most] eggs from being lost into the abdomen
TRUE or FALSE: Eggs are released in order, 1 from the L ovary, then 1 from the R ovary, etc. FALSE: eggs are ovulated in random order
What type of twins do you get if two eggs are ovulated and fertilized? Fraternal twins
What type (stage) of eggs are females born with? Primordial follicles
What is the structure of a primordial follicle? A layer of granulosa cells surrounding an egg
In response to which hormone do a few follicles begin to develop further past the primordial follicle? FSH
From what is the corpus luteum derived? The follicular cells that are left behind after an egg is ovulated
What is the fxn of the granulosa cells? To provide nutrients for the egg
What is the effect of FSH on the primordial follicle? Granulosa cells divide into several layers, becoming the primary follicle, then begin to secrete fluid into an internal antrum, which will eventually almost completely surround the egg
What is the effect of LH on the developing follicle? Stimulates the cells on the outer layer of the follicle to produce estrogen
What happens as estrogen secretion increases? Response to FSH & LH increases and the follicle grows dramatically in size
What is the diameter of the largest of the developing follicles? 1-2 cm
What happens to the follicles that are not ovulated? They undergo atresia, which is involution
How long does it take for an egg to develop from a primordial follicle to a preovulatory follicle? 12-14 days
When is the concentration of estrogen/estradiol highest? In the follicular phase
When is the concentration of progesterone highest? In the luteal (post-ovulatory) phase
What triggers ovulation? The LH surge in the follicular phase
When is the concentration of FSH highest? In the follicular phase
When do LH & FSH secretion peak? About 2 days before ovulation
What secretes progesterone? Follicle cells, corpus luteum
When do follicle cells begin to secrete progesterone? Around the same time as the LH & FSH spike - about 2 days before ovulation
What is the fxn of proteolytic enzymes in ovulation? Weakens the follicular wall
Discuss ovulation Fluid is drawn into the follicle by osmosis, causing the follicle to swell until it bursts. The egg & mass of granulosa cells are then forced out of the follicle
What causes local vasodilation in regards to ovulation (slide 10)? PG-I2
What causes the corpus luteum to form? In response to high LH levels, the remaining follicular cells enlarge to form the corpus luteum
What hormones do the corpus luteum secrete? Lots of progesterone and some estrogen
What is the effect of progesterone & estrogen on LH & FSH? Block LH & FSH secretion, preventing the onset of a few follicular cycle
When does the corpus luteum begin to degenerate? About 12-14 days after LH & FHS levels begin to decrease
What is the result of degeneration of the corpus luteum? Hormone secretion (progesterone and estrogen) rapidly declines
What is the fxn of the straight, radial arteries of the endometrium? Nourish the basal layers of the endometrium
What are the (6) birth control methods that inhibit FSH & LH release? 1. the pill; 2. seasonale pill; 3. morning-after pill; 4. the patch; 5. Depo-provera; 6. Norplant (Jadelle)
Describe "the pill" It roughly parallels the hormone levels of the natural cycle: 7 days of placebo (menstruation), 7 days of estrogen, 7 days of estrogen + progesterone, and 7 days of progesterone only
What is the difference between "the pill" and the seasonale pill? The seasonale eliminates the placebo week, so there is no menstruation
TRUE or FALSE: birth control that inhibits FSH & LH release prevents ovulation TRUE
What is the morning-after pill? A large dose of progesterone
What is the patch? The same as "the pill", only dermally applied
What is Depo-provera? Injection of progesterone in oil, which slowly diffuses out of the oil into the blood, is picked up by a carrier protein, supports the endometrial lining
What is Norplant (Jadelle)? Small plastic tube containing progesterone, lasts 3-5 years
What are the (5) methods of birth control that do not inhibit the FSH & LH release, but interfere with the ovarian cycle in other ways? 1. tubal ligation; 2. Essure; 3. IUD; 4. RU-486; 5. Rhythm
What is a problem with "the pill"? The doses of estrogen and progesterone have to be high enough that after 4-5 half lives there is still enough to prevent FSH & LH release
How does tubal ligation interfere with the ovarian cycle? It involves cutting or blocking the oviducts, analogous to vasectomy
How does Essure interfere with the ovarian cycle? It is a stent that is inserted into the oviducts
How do IUDs interfere with the ovarian cycle? It irritates/inflames the uterus, increasing WBCs and mucus; the Cu++ is toxic to sperm
What is an IUD? a small Cu++ ring or coil in the uterus
How does the morning-after pill work? The large dose of progesterone disrupts the endometrial lining so implantation cannot occur
How does RU-486 interfere with the ovarian cycle? It blocks progesterone receptors
How does the rhythm method work? It involves timing of intercourse using the body's change in temperature, cervical mucus thickness, and LH assays
What is an adverse effect of "the patch"? Some people can have allergic reactions to it (skin rash, etc)
What is an adverse effect Depo-provera? Can get random spotting
What is an adverse effect Norplant (Jadelle)? Can get random spotting
How does body temperature change throughout the menstrual cycle? It increases right after ovulation, and remains elevated for about 10 days
Relate hormone levels to the endometrial wall It is thinnest after menstruation (levels of all hormones are lowest). FSH & LH trigger the beginning of the thickening of the endometrium, and it is thickest with the highest levels of progesterone (which coincides with the luteal phase)
Relate the phases of the ovarian cycle to phases of the endometrial development Menstrual phase + primary & secondary follicle (beginning of follicular phase); Proliferative phase + vesicular follicle (end of follicular phase); Secretory phase + luteal phase
How does estrogen affect the endometrium? Inc estrogen secretion from the ovary causes proliferation of endometrial cells
How thick is the endometrium by the time of ovulation? 3-5mm
How does progesterone affect the endometrium? After ovulation progesterone causes swelling and glandular proliferation
What is the fxn of the spiral arteries of the endometrium? Supply the upper layer of the endometrium, has numerous venous anastomoses
What happens to the arterial supply of the endometrium when there is no progesterone? The spiral arteries contract, and the endometrial tissue necroses
How long does the corpus luteum live? 12-14 days
What causes degeneration of the corpus luteum? After 12-14 days progesterone secretion has decreased to very low levels, and the maintenance of the secretory cells of the endometrium is lost
What causes vasoconstriction in regards to menstruation (slide 15)? PG-F2
What causes shedding of the endometrium ? PG-F2 causes vasoconstriction, the innermost layer of the endometrium undergoes necrosis and hemorrhage, and unterine contractions force the remaining tissue out thru the cervix
What causes release of FSH & LH? Secretion of GnRH from the anterior pituitary
What inhibits secretion of GnRH? Estrogen and progesterone secretion by the follicle
What do FSH & LH initiate? Development of the follicles
What happens after about 12 days of rising estrogen levels? There is a spike in FSH & LH, which is called the pre-ovulatory surge
What is the result of the pre-ovulatory surge? Ovulation
When does progesterone secretion occur, and what does that affect? Occurs after ovulation, inhibiting further FSH & LH release
What happens hormonally 24-48 hours before ovulation? Levels of estrogen have switched from being inhibitory to now stimulatory, so in the presence of estrogen secretion of (mostly) LH and FSH dramatically increase
Why does estrogen initially have an inhibitory effect? The initial estrogen binds to high-affinity receptors, and these receptors have an inhibitory effect
Why does estrogen eventually switch to have a stimulatory effect? After the high-affinity receptors are saturated, estrogen binds to lower-affinity receptors, which have a stimulatory effect
What is another theory about why estrogen could have different effects at different times? There could be a timed expression of different estrogen receptors in the pituitary & hypothalamus
During which days of the menstrual cycle does "the pill" inhibit FSH & LH release? days 7-14
Describe the change in urinary gonadotropin (FSH & LH) release in a woman as she ages Before puberty there is no FSH or LH release. During puberty there is a small increase, it continues to slowly increase until menopause, when there is a very large jump in urinary gonadotropin levels in a very short amount of time.
Compare urinary gonadotropin levels between men & women as they age The levels are about the same until about age 20, then women begin to secrete more, and then at menopause there is a very large difference between men & women. Both peak around age 60yo.
Relate FSH & LH levels in women to progesterone & estrogen at menopause At menopause secretion of estrogen & progesterone cease, which is also the time that FSH & LH spike
Created by: hclark86