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Exercise Metabolism

Exercise Metabolism and Bioenergetics

TermDefinition
Bioenergetics the study of how energy is transformed through various biomechanical reactions
Metabolism the process in which nutrients are acquired, transported, used, and disposed of by the body
Carbohyrates, Fats, Protein the main sources of chemical energy
Exercise Metabolism the examination of bioenergetics as it relates to the unique physiologic changes and demands placed on the body during exercise
Substrates the material or substance on which an enzyme acts
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) energy storage and transfer unit within the cells of the body
Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) a high-energy compound occurring in all cells from which ATP is formed
Carbohydrates organic compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, which includes starches cellulose, and sugars, and are an important source of energy
Glucose a simple sugar manufactured by the body from carbohydrates, fat, and to a lesser extent protein, which serves as the body's main source of fuel
Glycogen the complex carbohydrate molecule used to store carbohydrates in the liver and muscle cells. When carbohydrate energy is needed, glycogen is converted into glucose for use by the muscle cells
Fat one of the three main classes of foods and a source of energy in the body. Fats help the body use some vitamins and keep the skin healthy. They also serve as energy stores for the body. In food, there are two types of fats, saturated and unsaturated.
Triglycerides the chemical or substrate form in which most fat exists in food as well as in the body
Protein amino acids linked by peptide bonds, which consist of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and usually sulfur, and that have several essential biologic compounds
Gluconeogenisis the formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources, such as amino acids
ATP-PC System the simplest and fastest of the energy systems, No O2 needed. 10-15 seconds. ATP-PC produces energy rapidly for primarily high-intensity, short duration bouts of exercise or activity such as a power workout or sprint
Glycolysis the process in which glucose or glycogen is broken down to either pyruvic acid (aerobic glycolysis) or lactic acid (anaerobic glycolysis) is 2 ATP for each mole or unit of glucose and 3 ATP from each unit of glycogen
The Oxidative System the most complex of the three energy systems is the process that uses substrates with the aid of oxygen to generate ATP. Three oxidative processes involved in the production of ATP involve oxygen referred to as aerobic processes
Aerobic Processes 1. Aerobic glycolysis 2. The Krebs Cycle 3. The electron transport chain (ETC)
Beta Oxidation the breakdown of triglycerides into smaller subunits called free fatty acids (FFAs) to convert FFAs into acyl-CoA molecules, which then are available to enter the Krebs cycle and ultimately lead to the production of additional ATP
Three ATP Producing Systems 1. ATP-PC (fastest; 10-15 sec) 2. Glycolysis (slower; 30-50 sec) 3. The Oxidative System (slowest)
Excess Postexercise Oxygen Consumption (EPOC) the state in which the body's metabolism is elevated after exercise
Respiratory Quotient is the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) expired divided by the amount of oxygen (O2) consumed, measured during rest or at steady state of exercise using a metabolic analyzer
Created by: 49602181