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Phys Spring 5: Lec 1

Male Repro

Where are the sperm produced? Seminiferous tubules
Where are the sperm stored? Vas deferens & epididymis
Where are the sperm matured? Epididymis
Trace the path of sperm Seminiferous tubules --> rete tubules --> epididymis --> vas deferens --> abdomen (inguinal canal) --> behind the bladder --> urethra --> out
Where does the ejaculatory duct of the seminal vesicle join the vas deferens (and ultimately the urethra)? Within the prostate
What parallels the vas deferens? The testicular artery
What is the order of developing cells from the wall of the seminiferous tubule to the lumen? 1. Wall of the tubule 2. Spermatogonia; 3. Sertoli cells connected by tight jxns creating the blood-testis barrier, creating a barrier between the lumen, the spermatogonia, and the wall; 4. Primary and secondary spermatocytes; 5. Sperm in the lumen
Discuss spermatogenesis Spermatogonia surround the seminiferous tubules --> divide via mitosis, remain germ cells --> divide via meiosis --> are now spermatocytes --> pass thru the blood-testis barrier of the Sertoli cells --> develop into sperm
How many sperm are produced each day? ~100 million
When do sperm become capable of motility? After 18-24 hours in the epididymis
Why are the sperm incapable of motility within the epididymis? Inhibitory proteins prevent movement
How long can sperm live within the vas deferens? ~1 month
What do the paired seminal vesicles produce? fructose & prostaglandins in a mucus base
What is the fxn of the fructose in the seminal fluid? to feed the sperm
What is the volume of sperm vs. seminal secertions vs. prostate secretion within the ejaculate? 10% sperm, 60% seminal secretions, 30% prostate secretion
What are the (2) fxns of prostaglandins in the seminal fluid? 1. inhibits woman's immune response to the sperm; 2. cause reverse peristalsis in the uterus & fallopian tubes
What is the prostate gland? A spongy, golf ball-sized gland surrounding the urethra just below the bladder
What sort of neurons stimulate the penis for erection, and what do these neurons release? Parasympathetic neurons, NO
What is the fxn of NO in penile erection? NO causes vasodilation of the local arteries, and relaxation of the smooth muscle fiber mesh-work of the spongy areas, increasing arterial input and restricting venous drainage
What is the molecular effect of NO on the penis? Inc cGMP levels, causing vasodilation
What type of neurons cause ejaculation of semen? Sexual reflex impulses by sympathetic neurons from T12-L2
How does erectile tissue respond to sympathetic stimulation? Initiates rapid peristaltic contractions of the vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and muscles at the base of the penis
What is the volume of semen in ejaculation? 2-4mL
TRUE OR FALSE: sperm are capable of fertilization at ejaculation FALSE - they are incapable of fertilization at ejaculation
What is the fxn of sperm hyaluronidase? Cuts the extracellular matrix that surrounds the egg
What does the anterior membrane of the sperm bind to? binds to receptors on the zona pellucida of the egg surface?
What does binding of sperm to the zona pellucida trigger? Release of the sperm's acrosomal enzymes, which cut into the egg surface, initiating Ca channel opening, causing a microskeletal rxn to prevent entry of more than 1 sperm
How many sperm are within each ejaculate? 50-100 million
Why are so many sperm required to fertilize an egg? Some are killed by vaginal acid, helping to neutralize the acid; some are killed by the woman's immune system
What happens to the woman's immune system after previous intercourse? Immune tolerance to the sperm
What surrounds the egg? Follicular cells and glycoproteins
TRUE OR FALSE: One acrosome has enough enzymes to break thru the follicular cells and glycoproteins surrounding the egg FALSE - more enzymes are required than one acrosome can provide
How long is the head of a sperm? 10um
How long is the tail of a sperm? 60-70um
Where is testosterone produced? Interstitial/Leydig cells of the testes
Where are interstitial/Leydig cells located? in the spaces between the seminiferous tubules
Where is the primary source of androngens for the male body? Interstitial/Leydig cells
What are the (2) fxns of testosterone during fetal development? 1. directs development of gender-specific organs; 2. controls descent of testes into the scrotal sac
What are the (7) fxns of testosterone in puberty & adulthood? 1. devel. of male sex organs; 2. growth of male-specific body hair patterns; 3. deepens voice; 4. inc muscle mass; 5. thickens & bone directs bone growth; 6. Inc basal metabolic rate; 7. Inc RBC concentration
What are the peak ages of testosterone? During second trimester of pregnancy, between birth and 1yo, then after ~age 13yo to 40yo, then begins to slowly decrease
What are the 2 current types of male contraception? Condoms & vasectomy
What are the fxns of the condom? Physical barrier b/n sperm & egg, reduce spread of HIV & STDs
Discuss a vasectomy Cuts/seals vas deferens; 30 min operation, high success rate
What happens to sperm after a vasectomy? Sperm are produced, stored, and die in epididymis
TRUE OR FALSE: Circulating testosterone levels decrease after a vasectomy FALSE - there is no change in circulating testosterone levels
What is the immune response after a vasectomy? A transient inc in ABs to sperm, but no immune complex disease or immune response to testicular tissue
What are the 10 possible future male contraceptive methods? 1. Injections of testosterone derivatives; 2. Depo-provera injections; 3. RISUG; 4. GnRH agonists; 5. GnRH antagonists; 6. ABs to GnRH, sperm protease, etc. 7. Adjudin; 8. Alpha-blockers; 9. Ca-channel blockers; 10. Gossypol
How do injections of testosterone derivatives work as male contraception? Because it triggers the negative feedback loop of testosterone(?)
What are exogenous anabolic steroids? testosterone, or a derivative
How are exogenous anabolic steroids applied? with an added side-chain for solubility or injected
What is the 1 good side effect of anabolic steroids? Inc muscle mass
What does exogenous anabolic steroids do to sperm count and the testes? lowers sperm count and causes testicular atrophy
TRUE OR FALSE: Men taking exogenous anabolic steroids have increased aggressive behavior TRUE
What happens to the heart and blood with exogenous anabolic steroid use? Valve damage and L ventricle hypertrophy, inc plasma cholesterol & BP, water retention (via aldosterone cross-over effect), and inc RBC production
What happens to the liver with exogenous anabolic steroid use? liver damage occurs via reduced detoxification, hepatocytes fill with steroid dehydrogenase, causing higher blood cholesterol and jaundice
What happens to the immune system with exogenous anabolic steroid use? Suppresses it (via corticoid cross-over effect)
TRUE OR FALSE: exogenous anabolic steroid use can cause migraines TRUE
TRUE OR FALSE: exogenous anabolic steroid use can cause severe acne? TRUE
TRUE OR FALSE: There is no way exogenous anabolic steroid use can cause anaphylactic shock. FALSE - can occur from shared needles
What happens to women who use exogenous anabolic steroids? Everything that happens to males, plus male-pattern body hair, deeper voice, blocked ovulations, miscarriage and fetal damage
How long does it take for a spermatogonia to become a mature sperm? ~ 10 weeks, and occurs throughout a man's life
What stimulates the Sertoli cells? FSH from the pituitary and testosterone from adjacent Leydig/interstitial cells
What forms the blood-testis barrier? Tight jxns between Sertoli cells
What is the fxn of inhibin, and where is it released from? Secreted by Sertoli cells, inhibits FSH release
What do the Sertoli cells do to the developing spermatocytes? fold them into their surface, translocates the to the lumen, and consumes the excess cytoplasm
What does the head of the sperm contain? Acrosome, surface membrane, vacuole, anterior & posterior head cap
What are the general parts of a sperm? Head, neck, body, chief piece of tail, and end piece of tail
What does the neck & body of the sperm tail contain? Lots of mitochondria
What does the acrosome contain, and what is its fxn? Contains enzymes (HA, proteases) for penetrating the cellular and protein barriers around the egg
What is the structure & fxn of the sperm tail? Contains microtubules, provides motive force for sperm swimming
What is the speed of sperm motility? 1-4 mm/min
What is the prostate gland secretion composed of? It is an alkaline secretion containing bicarb, citrate, Ca, and a high concentration of zinc
What is the fxn of the prostate gland secretion? Helps protect the sperm from vaginal acid
What is the fxn of zinc in the prostate gland secretion? Stabilizes the chromatin in the sperm head
How does Viagra work? Blocks PDE5, which prevents cGMP break-down, which maintains vasodilation and erection
What breaks down cGMP? Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5)
What is capacitation? The process of sperm becoming capable of fertilization
How does capacitation occur? Inhibitory factors that suppressed sperm activity in vas deferens are diluted by vaginal/uterine fluids, uterine secretions of steroid-binding albumin removes cholesterol from acrosome surface, and there is an influx of Ca from uterine fluids into sperm
What are the (2) actions of Ca from the uterine fluids? 1. Ca moves into the flagellum, causes more rapid motion; 2. Ca moves into the acrosome, enhancing acrosomal enzyme secretion
TRUE OR FALSE: Testosterone is secreted into blood and freely circulates FALSE: Testosterone is secreted into blood and binds to sex hormone-binding globulin and some plasma albumin
Which tissues absorb testosterone? target tissues (?) or liver hepatocytes
What is the fxn of liver hepatocytes to testosterone? liver hepatocytes process testosterone and excrete it into bile & urine
What do the adrenal glands secrete? DHEA and androstenedione
What is DHEA converted to? DHEA --> Androstenedione --> testosterone --> estradiol
What are the peak ages of sperm production ~15yo to ~80yo, then begins to slowly decrease
What hormone is the fxn of GnRH, and from where is it released? Controls sperm development, released from the hypothalamus
How does GnRH control sperm development? GnRH enters the portal system --> anterior pituitary --> causes anterior pituitary to release LH & FSH
What is the role of LH in sperm development? Stimulates interstitial/Leydig cells of the testes to secrete testosterone
What is the role of FSH in sperm development? Stimulates Sertoli cells of the seminiferous tubules to develop the sperm
Do testosterone and inhibit provide negative or positive feedback? Provide negative feedback (feedback inhibition) to hypothalamus & pituitary
How do Depo-provera injections work as male contraception? Blocks LH-FSH
What is the route of administration of Depo-provera? Androgen gel or patch
What is RISUG? A reversible injection of styrene gel into the vas deferens, being developed as a form of male contraception
How do GnRH agonists work as male contraception? Bind to and inactivate receptors (indirectly) by down-regulation
How do GnRH antagonists work as male contraception? bind to and directly inactivates receptors
How does Adjudin work as male contraception? blocks cell adhesion b/n Sertoli cells and spermatocytes
How do alpha-blockers work as male contraception? Inhibits ejaculation
How do Ca-channel blockers work as male contraception? Block sperm movement
How does Gossypol work as male contraception? blocks an enzyme (?) in spermatogenesis
What is the risk of using Adjudin? It is similar to chemotherapy agents, requires high doses and can cause liver damage
What is the risk of using Gossypol? blocking the enzyme is not always reversible, causes a high % of permanent infertility, inducing hypokalemia, and is occasionally fatal
What is phenoxybenzamine? An example of an alpha-blocker contraceptive
Created by: hclark86



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