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Phonemic Bases 1

Phonemic Bases test one

Speech How we use our lips, tongue, and teeth to make the sounds of our language
Idiolect each unique, individual way of speaking
Language the communication of thoughts and feelings through a system of arbitrary signals such as sounds, gestures or written symbols
Linguistics Study of language
Regional dialect different usage patterns within a language determined by location
Class dialect different usage patterns within a language determined by status
Morpheme the smallest meaningful unit of language
Morphology the study of morphemes
Phoneme smallest unit of language that helps for larger units
allophone variant of a phoneme- sounds different when combined
minimal pairs morphemes that differ by one sound and have different meanings (tall, call; wing, sing)
phonetics study of how speech sounds are produced and their acoustic properties
dimensions of consonants place, manner, voice
Bilabial (P) 2 lips: b, p, m, w
Labiotental (P) lips and teeth: f, v
Linguadental (P) tongue and teeth: th
Alveolar (P) tongue to aveolar ridge: d, t, z, s, n, l
Palatal (P) tongue and any palate: 'zjuh', sh, j/g, ch, r
Velar (P) back of tongue to back of palate: g, k, ng, j
Glottal (P) made by glottis: h
Stop (M) 2 articularors contact each other and momentarily block the flow of air: p, b, d, t, g, k
Fricative (M) 2 articulators close but do not touch- air forced through: f,s, th, v, sh, z, s, h
Afficative (M) comination of stop and fricative: ch, 'zjuh'
Nasal (M) block oral cavity and force air through the nose: m, n, ng
Glide (M) smoothly shifting tongue from one position to another: w, j
Liquid (M) tongue forms a loose blockage in the oral cavity: r, l
International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) universal- written sounds of speech for any language
Dimensions of vowels tongue height, tongue advancement, tenseness, lip rounding
tenseness muscle activity in the tongue
Components of the laryngeal system trachea, larynx, vocal folds
Trachea connents the lungs to the larynx
Vocal folds pair of muscle and tissue within the larynx that vibrate to produce voice
Abducted vocal folds are open
Adducted Vocal folds are closed
3 major air cavities of the supralaryngeal system oral, nasal, pharyngeal
Articulation way of modifying airstream/joining together of articulators to produce phonemes
Velum part of palate that blocks the nasal cavity; the soft palate- determines direction sound will flow
Jaw mandible; contributes to movememts of tongue and lips
Tongue tip apex, front
Tongue body majority of the tongue
Tongue dorsum back of tongue
Tongue blade behind tip
Tongues roof Fron wall of pharyngeal cavity
Coarticulation production of a sound is influenced by the sounds around it
Coarticulation- forward anticipatory- show, and
Coarticulation- backward retentive- me
Structures of the Central Nervous System Spinal Cord and Brain
Brain housed and protected by the skin, controls behavior, covered by the cortex
bumps on the brain gyrus/gyri
grooves of the brain sulcus/sulci/fissures
Left hemisphere speech, language, hearing, analytical
Right hemisphere interpret, appreciate art, express emotion, understand spatial relations, see whole picture
Frontal lobe most anterior, boundaries are central sulcus and lateral sulcus
Frontal lobe responsible for motor functions and executive functions
Broca's area in frontal lobe, involved in speech production, activates speaking muscles and phonation
Parietal lobe central fissure to occipital lobe
Parietal lobe responsible for: tactile processing and integration
Temporal lobe lies under lateral fissure, extending forward from the occipital lobe to the temporal pole
temporal lobe houses heschel's gyrus and wernicke's area
heschel's gyrus and wernicke's area located in temporal lobe, invovled in speech perception
occipital lobe positioned at the back of the brain
occipital lobe related to visual perception
insual area of cortex not visible on surface- deep in lateral sulcus
cranial nerves part of peripheral nervious system
cranial nerves origionate on brain stem
1. Olfactory type sensory
1. Olfactory function relay impulese of smell to brain
2. Optic nerve type sensory
2. Optic nerve function relay information from eyes to occipital lobe
3. Occulomotor type mixed
3. Occulomotor function move muscles of eyes for fixation or tracking
4. Trochlear type mixed
4. Trochlear function sensory information to brain, from brain to eyes, controls movement of eyes up and down
5. Trigeminal type mixed
5. Trigeminal function sensory from face to brain, muscles of mastication, tense palate, open eustasian tube, largest of nerves
6. Abducens type mixed
6. Abducens function move eye laterally
7. Facial type mixed
7. Facial function muscles of facial expression, produces tears and saliva, taste sensation to brain
8. Vestibulo type sensory
8. Vestibulo function relay information about timing and intesity of sound location
9. Glossopharyngeal type mixed
9. Glossopharyngeal function relay taste, move pharynx
10. Vegas type mixed
10. Vegas function relay taste and touch sensation, move tongue, pharynx, soft palate, esophogus
11. Spinal Accessory type motor
11. Spinal Accessory function energy to pharynx, larynx, and palate, shrug and tilt head
12. Hypoglossal type motor
12. Hypoglossal function chew, swallow speech, sucking
Created by: rubytuesday



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