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Lecture 49

Sex Differentiation; Male Reproductive System

Chromosomes 23 pairs,23 from mother (22 + x) 23 from father (x or y).carry genes,code for proteins
X and Y Chromosomes x is female,xy is male.x chromosome is large,many genes.y chrom is small,few genes.sry gene starts male development in utero
Gonads in Embryo gonads are the testes and 7th week,w/ sry,gonadal medulla leads to testes,cortex regresses.w/o sry,gonadal cortex leads to overies,medulla regresses.
Puberty maturation of reproductive system.females:hair pattern,breast development and menstruation.males:hair pattern,erectile func,sperm,musculature.
Onset inc gonadotropin rh (gnrh) release from hypothalamus necessary-kisspeptin release of fsh and lh from pituitary.leptin from adipose tissue may be necessary for menarche.
Pituitary Gonadotropins needs gnrh from hypothalamus for release.controlled by negative feedback of gonadal hormones:testosterone,estrogen,progesterone.
FSH follicle stimulating hormone.females:growth and activation of ovarian follicles.males:develop and mature sperm by activating sertoli cells.
LH lutenizing hormone.females:ovarian menstruation,estrogen secretion,ovulation.males:testosterone secretion from leydig cells.
Testes seminferous tubules-sites of sperm production.sertoli cells-assist sperm production.leydig cells-testosterone production.
Spermatogenesis formation of sperm cells from spermatocytes ~100,000,000 sperm/day.
Sperm Formation spernatogonium mitosis-one stays,the other migrates inward.migrating cell,spermatocyte remodeled to sperm cell.sertoli cells absorb most of spermatocyte cytoplasm.
Sperm Structure head-acrosome-digestive enzymes-nucleus-23 chrom.midpiece-mitochondia.tail-propulsion by microtuble rotation only needed near ovum.
Temperature max sperm production at 32 c (body is 37 c)scrtoum will rise in cold and descend in heat to maintain temp.non-descended testicle usually sterile.
Semen liquid holding sperm ~ 3 mil/ejaculate ~300,000,000 sperm. <20,000 sperm/ejaculate considered sterile.accessory structures contribute fructose,mucus,clotting proteins,bicarbonate to semen.
Erection arteriole dilation,venous compression leads to engorgement.parasymp n. leads to NO production leads to arteriole vasodilation
Emission mixing of prostattic fluid,sperm,and seminal vesicle fluid just prior to ejaculation.symp n. control emission.
Ejaculation skeletal contraction expelling sperm.
Testosterone steroid hormone.released in utero and shortly after birth to create male reproductive further release until puberty.tonic release thereafter.
Secretion from leydig cells as made.98% bound to protein in circulation.2% free and active.stimulates protein synthesis.
Secondary Sex Characteristics male hair pattern-penile and genetalia enlargement.vocal cord thickening-inc mental activity. inc sex drive-inc growth.
Anabolic Effects growth spurt,then epiphyseal musculature and kidney size.
Inhibin released from sertoli cells.inhibits fsh release.all hormones (fsh,lh,testosterone inhibin) are tonic and stable after puberty.
Created by: danamarie9323



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