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Lecture 48


Incidence Males: prostate,lung,colon,bladder.Females:breast,lung,colon,uterine.cancer deaths-largest number w/ percent of incidence deaths.males:lung 100%,prostate 16%,colon 45%,pancreas 100%.females:lungs 90%,breast 22%,colon 45%,pancreas 100%
Types separated by ability to spread
Bengign localized-can produce problems if tumor crushes adjacent tissues or withdraws blood from adjacent tissues.treat w/ surgery.many benign tumors arent cancerous.
Malignent has metastasized through lymph system.surgery to remove large tumors,chemo and radiation to kill metastasized cells.
Diagnosis need biopsy for full diagnosis,inc use of MRI.tumors often produce hormonal or protein markers.
Treatments combo of treatments will vary w/ different cancers.
Surgery remove tumor,and some surrounding tissue to make sure all tumor removed
Raditation kills fast growing cells,damages dna and makes oxygen radicals.side effects on bone marrow and GI tract.
Chemotherapy kills fast growing cells-mult targets-dna and mitotic spindle main ones.also bone marrow and GI side effects
Biologic Therapy shift host/tumor balance toward host.alter t cell,antibody production,and cytokines to attack tumor
Genetics single cell generates tumor.not inherited from parents.even predisposition needs additional mutations.
Mutation dna alterations lead to unrestrained cell proliferation
Tumor Viruses only a few cancers are linked to viruses.dna/rna viruses alter dna in host cell.only rna virus cancer is a type of leukemia.dna viruses have several links:cervical cancer,liver cancer,lymphomas during immune deficiency.
Cell Biology uncontrolled growth due to cell changes.1 mutation not enough,malignancy usually needs 5-10
p53 Mutations p53 pathway controls normal mitosis-acts as tumor suppressor. many,not all tumors have p53 mutations.mutator leads to genanomic instability and resistance to apoptosis.
Environmental Signals effects occur in cancer cells after mutations.cytokines and paracrines alter g protein and enzyme linked processes.effect signals to genome that regulates mitosis.loss of cell-cell connections and contact inhibition.
Transcription Factors control gene activation-alteration in genes and/or factors.factors affect expression in tumor cells allowing tumor growth.
Apoptosis Regulation programmed cell death often occurs after mutation.caspases are enzymes controlling apoptosis (attack dna,enzymes,cytoskeleton).dec caspase activity in tumors.target of new cancer treatments.
Angiogenesis tumors draw blood from surrounding healthy tissues,starving tumor
Prevention prevent the mult mutations necessary to start a tumor.
Smoking Cessation stopping is the single most + health activity.400,000 premature deaths due to smoking per year.linked to lung,larynx,esophagus,bladder,pancreatic cancers.also linked to cardiovascular and pulmonary disease,90%who quit do so on their own,total quiting best
Diet dec fat intake dec cancer rate,anticarcinogens in vegetables,fruits,nuts.fiber dec colon cancer.
Sun Avoidance UV radiation causes inc in skin cancer.acute sunburns,even in childhood,inc risk of melanoma.lighter skinned people have greater risk.
Chemoprevention new field drugs designed to dec mutation risk.antimutagenic,antioxidant,antiproliferent preventatives often significant side effects.use of tanoxifen to dec breast cancer in high risk women. may inc cerical cancer risk-balance risk.
Created by: danamarie9323