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Lecture 46

Adrenal Gland

Adrenal Medulla inner layer of adrenal gland.similar to post-ganglion symp neuron.
Secretions stored in granules.epi/ne 4:1-strong peripheral effects. vit c stored and released w/ epi/ne
Effects of Catecholamines epi inc hr dec tpr inc co. ne inc vasoconstriction,except in heart and skeletal msucle.net effect is inc bp,and inc metabolic rate.
Neural Control release determined by baroreceptor activity. dec bp leads to inc epi/ne release. inc bp leads to dec epi/ne release
Adrenal Cortex outer layers of adrenal gland.endocrine gland.
Secretions released as made,not stored.all are steroid derivatives of cholesterol.mineralocortoids-cortisol et al.glucocorticoids-cortisol et al. androgens-DHEA,androstenedione.
ACTH Effects and Control acth from anterior pituitary when cortisol is low,stress high,on top of diurnal rhythm.atch causes inc release of all adrenal cortex steroids,except aldosterone.
Circulation of Glucocorticoids most bound to globulin proteins.only free form is active.activity of steroids last about one hr.
Glucocorticoid Effects cortisol is "stress" hormone-necessary for survival.bind to nuclear receptors to inc protein synthesis.
Metabolism inc protein catabolism-freezing amino acids for damage repair.inc plasma glucose. inc plasma fatty acids.glucose and fatty acids provide energy for repair.
Permissive Actions assists actions of glucagon and catecholamines (vasoconstrictor,bronchodilation)
Stress something is only a stress if acth inc. atch leads to inc cortisol release.short term leads to inc energy availability,amino acid availability,catschloamine long term stress harmful-excess protein breakdown-wasting,painful.
Anti-Inflammatory Affects only at high glucocortocoid levels.swelling dec histamine.also,blocks immune system-apoptosis of wbc's.must use antibiotics to prevent infection.not for routine use.
Mineralocorticoids aldosterone,inc na+ reab in the kidney
Adrenal Androgens major effects in females.no or minor effects in males.
DHEA sex drive and starts growth spurt at puberty in females.estrogen caps female growth spurt.no effect in males (testosterone is 100x stronger)
Androstenedione little effect itslef,precursor to testosterone and estradiol.
Created by: danamarie9323