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Lecture 44


Hypothalamus/Pituitary Structure h at the basis of the brain-stalk connects h to pituitary.posterior pituitary connected by neural axons.anterior pituitary connected by h-hypophysed system
Posterior Pituitary hormones synthesized in the hypothalamus.axons and nerve endings in posterior pituitary.
Vasopressin secreted when osmolarity inc. inc. h2o reabsorption at collecting duct.stimulates aquaporin insertion time CD membrane.
Oxytocin contracts uterus during childbirth.causes milk ejection from mammary glands during lactation
Hypothalamic Releasing/Inhibiting Hormones anterior pituitary hormone release controlled by hypothalamus.releasing/inhibiting hormones travel by portal sys to anterior pituitary RH and IH control release of 6 ant pit hormones.
Portal Sysytem connects capillary beds from hypothalamus to ant pit. small distance and no dilation means RH and IH released in very small amounts,but w/ big effects.
Anterior Pituitary Hormone Release input to the hypothalamus controls RH and IH release.input is both neural and hormonal.balance of rh and ih for particular ant pit hormone controls ant pit hormone release.
Negative Feedback anterior pituitary hormone release is regulated by negative feedback-always to ant pit sometimes to hypothal.target gland hormone release inhibits ant pit tropic hormone release
Growth Control mult factors-all necess. for full growth.genetics provides base and max.nutrition-most important non-genetic factor:proteins,vitamins,minerals essential for full growth calories needed
Growth Hormone protein from anterior pituitary activates second messengers at many organ cell membranes.-15 min circulation time before metabolism by liver.
Non-Growth Related Effects inc liver glucose production,inc fatty acid release from adipose tissue:conserves glucose for brain use during growth.
Growth-Promoting Actions hyperplasia and hypertrophy of cells inc protein synthesis.
Bone Growth growth hormone stimulates bone thickness and length.
Bone Composition outer layers have compact bone-ca phos hardens/collagen makes strong and flexible inner layers have spongy bone.long bones epiphyses at both ends,diaphysis in middle.
Osteoblast/Osteoclasts o'blasts form new bone and secrete calcium phos.o'clasts read:bone,create spaces in bone.
Bone Length Growth length growth-occurs at epiphyseal plates-o'clasts eat epiphyses-o'blasts extend diaphysis.fuse at puberty (o'blasts catch o'clasts)
Control of Growth Hormone Release hypothal releases both GHRH and GHIH.diurnal-highest an hr after sleep begins.exercise,physical stress and low blood glucose inc GH release
GH Deficiency in children,dwarfism occurs w/ dec. bone growth. no effect on adults.
GH Excess before puberty inc proportional growth.after puberty,acromegaly-excess growth of face,hands,and feet.
Growth Control cont. growth can catch up during puberty if dec in childhood due to protein catabolism during disease/injury.
Created by: danamarie9323