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Lecture 42

Energy Balance

TermDefinition
Energy Input Energy in ingested food.digested food energy trapped in atp phosphate bonds Atp used to drive physiological func
Energy Output external work used to move objects or the body.internal work:posture;shivering;internal activities.needed for life:ion pumping,heart pumping,synthesis etc.all activities ultimately becoming heat
Basal Metabolic Rate BMR=energy/time-calories/day.2000cal/day are 2000 kilo cal/day
Neutral Balance energy input=energy output,food energy=external work + internal work + heat
Positive Balance energy input > energy output.energy stored in adipose tissue,weight gain.
Negative Balance energy input < energy output.weight loss,first from adipose tissue,then from muscle
Hypothalamic Control of Intake hypothalamus integrates mult. signal matching feeding to energy needs. balance of hunger and satiety.
Neuropeptide Y released by h+,stimulates appetite.
Melanocortins released by h+,suppress appetite.NPY and MC's after brain activities that control food intake.
Leptins secreted by adipose tissue-proportional to tg storage in adipose inc. fat stores signals satiety by releasing leptins.leptins dec NPY and inc MC's
Digestive System Appetite Control hormones from the GI tract control hypothalamic release.
Ghrelin/PYY3-36 ghrelin rises before eating,stimulates appetite and falls after eating-inc NPY release PPY released during meals and signals satiety
CCK the release of cck signals satiety before digestion has occured-stop eating before the new calories available.stimulating cck w/ fat or protein early in eating may control food intake amount
Social Control social context:family meals,habits,stress,loneliness,distraction etc. caloric intake often strongly influenced by outside factors obesity: dec excercise BMR,biochem differences,habit,hormonal differences etc.inc morbibity + mortality. anorexia-K+imbalance
Temperature Regulation 98.6 F=37 C.convulsions at 106:death from protein dencturation at 110.core temp is regulated:shell variable
Heat Balance balance of input and output.internal heat must be removed.mult heat exchange mechanisms
Heat Exchange radiation of electromagnetic waves:sun,fireplace.conduction:transfer by contact from warm-cold.convection:air/water currents inc transfer.evaporation of water from skin removes heat.sweat inc evaporation,dripping doesnt.fitness dec sweat salt content
Heat Production muscle contraction,shivering is contraction w/o work,all heat.BMR gets lower limit of heat production.
Response to Cold hypothalamus thermoreceptors control responses.dec skin blood flow-goosebumps ineffective.human adaptation-movement,clothing,outside sources.
Response to Heat inc skin blood flow inc sweating,adaptation.fever:wbc's release endogenous pyrogen,reset hypothalamus.asprin blocks prostaglandin production
Created by: danamarie9323