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Renal System


Blood hydrostatic pressure Pressure generated by pumping action of heart
Blood colloid osmotic pressure Force generating absorption of fluid caused by suspension of proteins
Filtration Promoted by blood hydrostatic pressure and interstitial fluid
Reabsorption Promoted by blood colloid osmotic pressure
Net Filtration Pressure Equation NFP = (BHP + IFPO) - (BCOP + IFHP)
Net filtration pressure function Determines whether fluids leave or enter capillaries
Net Outward Pressure (filtration) 10 mm Hg at arterial end of a capillary bed
Net Inward filtration (reabsorption) 9 mmHg at venous end of a capillary bed
7 Functions of the kidney 1. Regulation of blood ionic composition 2. Regulation of blood pH 3. Regulation of blood volume and BP 4. Maintains blood osmolarity 5. Hormone Production 6. Regulation of blood glucose 7. Excretion of wastes
Regulation of blood ionic composition Electrolyte balance
Regulation of blood pH Acid-base balance
Blood osmolarity 300 mOsm/L
Hormone production Renin, Aldosterone, ADH, Calcitrol (Bone), EPO (RBC)
Regulation of blood glucose Glutamine & GNG
Excretion of wastes Metabolites, drugs, excess water and solutes
Left side of the kidney Kidney structure
Right side of the kidney Path of urine drainage
Percentage of cardiac output from renal blood supply 25%
4 Major sources of the nephron 1. Filtration 2. Reabsorption 3. Secretion 4. Excretion
Filtration Definition Movement of water and solutes from the blood plasma across the wall of the glomerular capillaries, into the glomerular capsule and into the renal tubule
Amount of Blood flow to the kidneys during filtration 1200-1300 ml/min at rest
Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) Volume of plasma filtrate that passes through the gloeruli every minute
3 Factors regulating GFR 1. Renal Autoregulation 2. Neural 3. Hormonal
Renal Autoregulation of GFR Mechanisms that maintain a constant GFR despite changes in arterial BP
Myogenic Mechanism Smooth muscle contracts and reduces the diameter of the arteriole and returns GFR to its previous level in seconds
Tubuloglomerular Feedback Increases in BP raise the GFR so that fluid flows too rapidly through the renal tubule
Neural Regulation of GFR Blood vessels of the kidney are supplied by sympathetic fibers that cause vasoconstriction of afferent arterioles
Hormonal Regulation of GFR Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and Angiotensin II
Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Increased in blood volume causes atria to stretch and ANP is released in response
Angiotensin II Potent vasoconstrictor that narrows both afferent and efferent arterioles reducing GFR
Reabsorption definition Movement of substances from the renal tubule to the bloodstream
Reabsorption is the return of Most of the filtered water and solutes from the tubular fluid to the blood stream
Secretion Definition The "Dumping" of waste, drug residuals, excess ions from blood into the tubular fluid
Proximal Tubial Site of most reabsorption and secretion
Loop of Henley Alternate between water impermeable and sodium permeable and sodium impermeable and water permeable
Distal Tubial and Collecting Duct - ADH Dependent water reabsorption - Aldosterone dependent sodium reabsorption - ANP inhibits ADH and aldosterone - Responsible for fluid balance
RAAS Aldosterone causes reabsorption of Na and Cl and secretion of K in the collecting duct
ADH Increases permeability to water in cells of the distal tubule and collecting duct causing higher water reabsorption
ANP Decreases Na and water reabsorption, inhibits aldosterone, and ADH release
Colloid Osmotic Pressure Osmolarity of plasma proteins
COP Influences The magnitude of fluid movement into or out of plasma perfusing the kidney
Steady State When intake equals output
Output is less than intake Positive balance
Renal Failure Excessive increase in body fluid and salt
Output is greater than intake Negative balance
Created by: brianamikel