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Phys Spring 4 Lec 1

Intro to Endocrinology

What are the major endocrine organs? Hypothalamus, A & P pituitary, Pineal gland, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreatic islets, Adrenal medulla & cortex, gonads
What does the hypothalamus produce? Releasing hormones
What does the posterior pituitary produce? Oxytocin, ADH
What does the anterior pituitary produce? FSH, LH, GH, TSH, ACTH, Prolactin
What does the pineal gland produce? Melatonin
What does the thyroid produce? Calcitonin, thyroid hormones
What does the parathyroid produce? PTH
What do the pancreatic islets produce? Insulin, glucagon, somatostatin
What does the adrenal medulla produce? Catecholamines
What does the adrenal cortex produce? corticosteroids, aldosterone
What do the gonads produce? estrogens, progesterone, androgens, relaxin, inhibin
What does the kidney produce? Renin, EPO
What does the heart produce? ANT, BNP
What does the stomach produce? gastrin, ghrelin, somatostatin
What does the duodenum produce? CCK, secretin
What does adipose tissue produce? Leptin, adiponectin
What does the placenta produce? HCG, estrogen, progesterone
Name examples of protein and peptide hormones (14) Releasing hormones, FSH, LH, TSH, ACTH, GH, prolactin, oxytocin, vasopressin, calcitonin, PTH, insulin, glucagon, HCG
Name examples of steroid hormones (4) Corticosteroids, estrogens, progesterone, androgens
Are protein & peptide hormones water-soluble? Yes
Are steroid hormones water-soluble? No
What is the half-life of protein & peptide hormones? A few minutes or less
What is the half-life of steroid hormones? Up to a few hours
Discuss the mode of action of steroid hormones Binds receptor (nuclear or cytoplasmic), enters nucleus, alters gene expression, cytoplasmic enzymes, and membrane structures
What enzyme converts testosterone to estradiol? Aromatase
Name examples of amines (2) Catecholamines, thyroid hormones
Discuss catecholamines Stored in vesicles and released by exocytosis; bind receptors on cell membrane
Discuss thyroid hormones Carried on macromolecules; bind to receptors in target nucleus
What is the half-life of thyroid hormones? Several days
Created by: hclark86