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WJEC - CG1 - 1.6

System Development Life Cycle

QuestionAnswer
What are the 5 stages in the SDLC - Analysis - Design - Implementation - Testing - Evaluation
What reasons are there to upgrade a system - Business model changes - Outdated hard ware - Problems with current hardware/software - Upgrading from manual to electronic
What is a feasibility study A feasibility study is the process of determining whether the new system is necessary or worth the cost
Feasibility studies investigation techniques - Investigations - Observations - Questionnaires - Examining documentation
What will the designer need to specify in their design [4] - Hardware needed - Software - Data structures - Inputs/output - Manual Procedures - Algorithms, hierarchy charts - Test Plan
What occurs during implementation - Developing algorithms - testing system using the test plan - install hardware/software - prepare data files - train users - Write documentation
Why is testing important Ensuring that the system runs as the designer, and client expect is very important as the system cant be finalised/sold without this assurance
What criteria are met when evaluating the system - Does the system meet the requirements - How effective is the solution - Can users use the system - What updates are needed -
What is TOLES - Technical Feasibility - Operation Feasibility - Legal Feasibility - Economic Feasibility - Schedule Feasibility
Benefits and drawbacks of questionnaires - Fast method of getting information - people can lie - Questions have to be broad/vague
Benefits and drawbacks of interviews - More detailed questions can be asked - questions can be streamlined to the nature of the conversation
Benefits and drawbacks of observations - Observing the business processes maybe a detailed way of seeing the business work flow - People may exaggerate their work ethic/not work properly
Benefits and drawbacks of documentation reading - Information like, technical manuals, code of conducts, database documents, invoices etc - This can be confusing and a time consuming process
What is a data flow diagram A visually representation of a complex system, usually consisting of four elements
What is the symbol for the flow of data An Arrow
What is the symbol for a process A rounded box
What is the symbol for an external entity two overlapping boxes
What is the symbol for a data source/store A box with one side missing
What are the three types of entity relationship diagram - one to one - one to many - many to many
What are some properties Forms should have for data entry - Clear and uncluttered - No ambiguous questions - Appropriate language - Have hints/help facilities to help the user - look presentable attractive
What are some properties Report should have - Be concise - Title - clear purpose - organised/uncluttered
What does HCI stand for and what does it mean Human Computer Interface - the interaction between a user and a computer
What kind of interfaces are there - command line - menu - GUI - Natural language
Benefit of a command line - Proficient users can use command lines quickly and efficiently - batch files can be run
Benefit of a menu - Easy to use/navigate - Clean interface
Benefit of a GUI - Perfect for new users - Provides a clean and attractive interface - slower running
What does WIMP stand for - Windows - Icons - Menus - Pointers
What is beneficial about natural language - Spoken word/ writing is easier to most users then typing - Useful if the user cant use their hands, surgeon etc - can be tricky to program software for this purpose - Language, dialect, and handwriting styles are all very different
What are the four types of Changeover - Direct - Phase - Parallel - Pilot
Explain Direct Change over giving one advantage and disadvantage Direct changeover is the process of stopping one system and starting a new one. - This is cheap, time saving and not labour intensive - If it fails the system is stopped and this can be costly
Explain Phase Change over giving one advantage and disadvantage Phase changeover basically releases elements of a systems package one by one until the system is fully operating. - Cheaper then parallel, reduced risk as failure is within one element - Can be time consuming and expensive
Explain Parallel Change over giving one advantage and disadvantage Parallel changeover is the running of the old system and the new one simultaneously. This ensures that if the system fails it can fall back on the old one. - be able to compare the quality of the system - Very Expensive - slower running of both
Explain Pilot Change over giving one advantage and disadvantage Pilot is the running of a new system in a small part of the company like a branch of a chain of stores. - Failure is only effecting on small part - Cheaper then parallel - Can be lengthy - risk of failure still exists for some users
What Types of maintenance are there - perfective - adaptive - corrective
Explain Perfective maintenance The idea that a system can be improved, the old system wasn't non functioning but had room to grow and this brings on Perfective Maintenance. - Make system faster - Make system intuitive - Add new features
Explain Adaptive maintenance The idea that a system needs to adapt to an environmental change or business change. Increase in traffic to website requires better server, new branches opening etc
Explain Corrective maintenance The system is released, but it contains bugs and errors. Subsequent updates are released in order to repair the systems errors. like updates to a phone that fix bugs or remove now broken features.
Why do systems have documentation Maintenance and upgrades arent usually performed by the same staff who installed the system. This means a method of communicating technical information to new staff is key. Documentation provides this bridge of information.
What problems could not having documentation create A lack of understanding will mean the staff will need to spend more time figuring out the system, whilst creating errors or breaking hardware/software
What kind of manuals are used in the SDLC - System Specifications - Program documentation - Testing logs - User manuals - Technical Manuals
What is found in the system spec This contains information on what the system will do, this is the agreement the client makes with the developer to create a system based off of he system spec. - dataflow diagrams - Hierarchy charts - entity relationship diagrams
What is found in the program documentation This is created during the development of a system, it will contains things like commented code, descriptions of algorithms, a variable table listing each with their function - design of data structures and data dictionaries
What is found in the Testing Logs This will include a log of testing information, this may document alpha testing beta testing or acceptance testing.
What is found in the user manual These contain non technical information designed for users of the system not the experts. It will contain basic language and easy to follow instructions. - quick start guide - trouble shooting - interface descriptions
What is found in the Technical manual usually for analysts or programmers. Usually very detailed, with good enough detail that a new developer could replicate the system themselves. - Installation guide - sys requirements - back up/ recovery - security/ admin
Created by: delldom