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WJEC - CG1 - 1.5

Nature & Types of Software

QuestionAnswer
What is an operating system and what is its purpose An operating system acts as the interface between computer hardware and the user, simply managing operations on the computer. It also is vital in managing computer resources like memory, storage, network speed etc
What kind of input and output hardware does the Operating system manage - Processing components (processor, ram, graphics cards) - Storage components (hard drives, flash memory) - Peripherals (mouse, keyboard, printer, monitors, speakers, diskdrives)
What software does hardware need to use to interact with the OS Drivers, these are used by the operating system to understand the purpose and usage of the hardware attached to it
What would happen if the OS cant find Drivers for the hardware its interacting with The Operating system will prompt the user to locate an appropriate driver for the unknown hardware (usually found on a disk)
What is spooling Spooling, synonymous with printers, is a process whereby the operating system of the computer connected to the printer, will queue print jobs in a line so that the printer can run through them systematically
Why is spooling useful - Multiple Computers can be connected to the printer at once - Users can carry on working while print jobs are being performed - Documents are printed as they are sent or can be given user subjective priorities
How does the OS manage Ram/Memory It calculates the maximum ram currently installed and when a program runs, it assigns a portion to that program. This ensures that every program has enough memory to run it, if the processing requirement exceeds the max ram installed it wont run it
Why is memory management important - program will crash loosing data to new programs being opened - spyware can read data if it isn't compartmentalised
Why does the OS need to manage Processes The OS manages processing needs so that the computer may have multiple programs open and so the data is processed systematically avoiding data corruption.
What security does an OS have - Password login combinations - hierarchy access levels (admin, user, guest) - User accounts can be managed, created and deleted - Important system files can be hidden and protected to ensure no program corruption can occur
What are the advantages of a hierarchical file system - good organisation of files - certain directories can be blocked from view - Subdirectories can be copied/deleted at once
What file attributes are there - Read only - Hidden - system - Archive
What is a FAT File Allocation Table, gives details of the start and end locations of a file stored on the hard drive
What is fragmentation of storage This is when a previously taken location on the disk of space (x) is deleted, a file the size of (2x) is saved, meaning part of it sits where the old file was, and some is moved to another location.
Why is fragmented data bad - Slow read speed - Can
What is a counter measure for fragmentation Defragmentation, this attempts to relink all the fragmented files into single files and then sequence in an order where no fragmentation occurs
What kinds of compression are there Lossless - No data is lost Lossy - Some data is lost
Why is compression used By compressing files, you can store more data on a hard drive and conserve space
What are some time saving features of a word processing program (word) - Template - Mail Merge - Macros - Formulas - Look up Tables - Pivot Tables
Why use a template A template being a partially completed document that will enable the user to write a document quickly as the layout and structure is already completed
Why use mail merge Mail merge is designed to work in tandem with the template. It will use a personal contact mailing list by extracting contact information and other information to fill multiple documents simultaneously, saving time and effort and it will be accurate
Why use a macro A macro provides a shortcut to a function, (ctrl-z is undo for example) this macro can be simple or complex but if an action is taken regularly, it will save time as the action can be shortened to a single step
Why use formulas in a spread sheet A formula can provide the user with mathematical or logical functions to manipulate data they are entering in the spread sheet
What is a look up table A drop down menu with predetermined options that ensure only a group of pre approved data is allowed to be used
Why use a pivot table A pivot table takes all the data in a spread sheet and provides summaries about the data present, useful when handling large amounts of data
What is the structure of an email (local segement)(@)(second level domain).(top level domain)
Why are emails advantageous - fast, arrives instantly - environmentally friendly - send attachments - Multiple recipients - Any time read, the user doesnt need to be around
Why are emails disadvantageous - they can be ignored (so can anything though) - Emails can be misconstrued as the tone is vague - SPAM - Virus - Never leaving the house (not serious)
Created by: delldom