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Defence mechanism

Physiology Block D:Support Systems

QuestionAnswer
what is the immune system protects against disease abnormal self cells dead or damaged cells pathogens
what is the immune system composed of cells proteins tissues organs
what is the first line of defense non specific mechanical chemical reflexes
what is the second line of defense non specific phagocytosis protective proteins-cytokins fever NK cells inflammation
what is the third line of defense spcific (acquired) immunity cell-mediated humoral
what is a non-immune defense mechanical barrier, chemical barrier and reflexes
is this specific/non-specific: response does not require specific recognition non specific
is this specific/non-specific: identify generic properties of pathogens, PAMP's non specific
is this specific/non-specific: fast response time, immediate maximal response non specific
is this specific/non-specific: exposure does not result in immunological memory non specific
is this specific/non-specific: response requires recognition of specific markers specific
is this specific/non-specific: indentifies protein markers on foreign material and on body's own cells specific
is this specific/non-specific: slow response time, lag between exposure and maximal response specific
is this specific/non-specific: exposure leads to immunological memory specific
what are the mechanical first lines of defense skin - dry, renewing; low pH; natural flora; antimicrobial proteins; chemical barriers mucosa - renewing; natural flora; chemical barriers; flushing; antimicrobial proteins
what parts of the body have mucosa respiratory tract gastrointestinal tract urogenital tract mouth eye
what surface area does the skin cover 2m^2
why is the skin a good mechanical barrier dry, renewing, keratinized layer that is difficult to penetrate normal bacterial flora antimicrobial proteins combine chemical barriers: sweat adn sebum
sebum sebum is an oily substance secreted by the sebaceous glands in mammalian skin to keep skin from drying out Its main purpose is to make the skin and hair waterproof and to protect them from drying out.
what surface area of the body does mucosa cover ~400m^2
what contains fatty acids, enzymes and peptides that have antimicrobial activity tears saliva sweat sebum vaginal secretions
what are example of reflex defenses cough sneeze vomiting diarrhea
describe the line defence: ear cerumen inhibits bacterial grown
describe the line defence: eyes cleansed by tears which also contain chemical inhibiting bacterial growth
describe the line defence: nasal cavity hairs and mucus trap microorganisms
describe the line defence:mouth cavity mucous membrane traps micro-organisms and the mouth is cleaned by saliva
describe the line defence: trachea and bronchi mucous layer traps microorganisms
describe the line defence: skin an impervious barrier
describe the line defence: stomach acidic juices ill many microorganisms
describe the line defence: urethra urine flow prevents bacterial growth
describe the line defence:vagina acidic secretion inhibits growth of pathogens
describe the line defence: anus mucous membrane traps microorganisms
what are the two components of the immune system lymphoid tissue, immune cells (leukocytes)
describe the anatomy of the immune system primary tissue secondary tissue (encapsulated, unencapsulated)
what are the 6 types of leukocytes basophils neutrophils eosinophils monocytes lymphocytes dendritic
where are leukkocytes formed and/or matured primary lymphoid tissue
what is in the primary lymphoid tissue bone marrow: platelets, erythrocytes, leukocytes thymus: t-lymphocytes
where do leukocytes interact with pathogens and elicit and immune response secondary lymphoid tissue
what are the two categories of the secondary lymphoid tissue with examples encapsulated: spleen, lymph nodes unencapsulated: tonsils, payer's patches, mucosa associated lymphoid tissues
describe the spleen's role as a defence mechanism mechanical filtration of blood cells active immune response via both cell and humoral mediated pathways
describe the lymph nodes' role as a defence mechanism active immune response via both cell and humoral mediated pathways
diffuse lymphoid tissue unencapsulated aggregates of immune cells in other tissues tonsils peyer's patches (skin and vagina) mucosa associated lymphoid tissues GI, eye, nasal passage, resp tract
basophils function in inflammation responses, allergic and immune similar to mast cells granules contain heparin, cytokines and other mediators
neutrophils carry out phagocytosis involved in inflammatory response signals induce fever granules contain lysozyme, myeloperoxidase and other mediators
eosinophils carry out phagocytosis fight against antibody-coated parasites involved in allergy inflammatory response cytotoxic cells granules contain toxic enzymes, oxidative substances and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin
monocytes (macrophages) monocytes is macrophage precursor in blood immune regulation (old RBC and neutrophils) role in developing acquired immunity , antigen presenting immune surveillance carry out phagocytosis
lymphocytes mediate acquired immune response three subtypes
natural killer cell kill infected cells and tumor cells
cytotoxic T cell kill infected a ndcells
helper T cell cytokines direct response of lymphocytes
B cell antigen presenting
plasma cell secretes antibodies
dendritic cell antigen presenting cell located in tissue in contact with external environment long, thin neuronal-like processes
aka polys l segs immature forms: bands or stabs neutrophils
aka mononuclear phagocyte system monocytes macrophages
aka B lymphocytes, plasma cells, memory cells T lymphocytes, cytotix T cells, Helper T cells Natural killer cells lymphocytes, plasma cells
what are the 3 subtypes of lymphocytes B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes natural killer cells
aka langerhans cells, veiled cell dendritic cells
what keukocyte releases chemicals that mediate inflammation and allergic responses basophils mast cells
what leukocytes ingest and destroy invaders neutrophils
what leukocytes destroy invaders, particularly antibody-coated parasites eosinophils
what leukocytes ingest and destroy invaders antigen presentation monocytes, macrophages
what leukocytes have specific responses to invaders, including antibody production lymphocytes, plasma cells
what leukocytes recognize pathogens and activate other immune cells by antigen presentation dendritic cells
which leukocytes are granulocytes basophils mast cells neutrophils esinophils
which leukocytes are phagocytes neutrophils eosinophils monocytes macrophages
which leukocytes are cytotoxic cells lymphocytes plasma cells eosinophils
leukocytes extravasation the movement of cell out the circulatory system into tissue, toward infection and/or tissue damage
what are non cellular mediators acute phase proteins opsonins chemotaxins cytokines pryogens
non cellular mediators: local mediators histamine - vasodilator associated with inflammation enzymes - kill bacteria interferons - anti-viral activity and modulate immune response
non cellular mediators: circulating mediators kinins- vasodilation complement - multiple actions antibodies - specific immune response interleukins - mediate communication between leukocytes
non-cellular mediators: vasodilator associated with inflammation histamine
non-cellular mediators: kill bacteria enzymes
non-cellular mediators: anti-viral activity and modulate immune response interferons
non-cellular mediators: vasodilation kinins
non-cellular mediators: multiple actions complement
non-cellular mediators: specific immune response antibodies
non-cellular mediators: interleukins mediate communication between keukocytes
protective cytokines interleukins
interleukin-6 produced from T-cell lymphocytes and macrophages pleiotropic effects pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory endogenous pyrogen protective role is live disease progression
what is essential for activation of T lymphocytes antigen presenting cell
MHC proteins specific membrane protein complexes bind antigen fragments for presentation essential for activation of immune response
what are the two classes for MHC proteins Class 1 and 2
what is a class 1 MHC protein on all nucleated cells display antigens derived from within the cell activate cytotoxic T lymphocytes
what is a class 2 MHC protein on antigen presenting leukocytes displays antigens produced via phagocytosis activate helper t cell
what is the major effector cell of non-specific immunity natural killer cells
where are the natural killer cells found lymphoid tissue
what is the function of natural killer cells kill targeted self cells kill bacteria with anitmicrobial protein defensin produce pro-inflammatory cytokines
how do natural killer cells have a fast response recognize stressed self cells in the absence of antibodies and MHC
what is the activation of natural killer cells determined by balance of inhibitory and activating receptor stimulation
inflammation hallmark of non-specific (innate immune response)
inflammation's 3 roles in fighting infection attract immune cells and mediators produce physical barrier to prevent infection from spreading promote tissue repair (non-immunological function)
what causes inflammation tissue damage/ infection release of local mediators chemotaxis leukocyte extravasation phagocytosis extracellular killing
what does histamine do (inflammation) vasodilation increase blood vessel permeability to plasma proteins (acute phase proteins, kinnis, complement
how does phagocytosis lead to inflammation intracellular killing antigen presenting
what is the first step of inflammation vasodilation increase blood flow increase permeability to protein increase delivery of leukocytes and mediators
what is the second step of inflammation chemotaxis and keukocyte extravasation (chemoattractants) neutrophils are attracted to bacterial chemical products like the peptide fMLP
fever when body temp is about 37.5
what is the function of a fever speed up some immunological reaction restrict temperature sensitive pathogens increase keukocyte mobility enhance phagocytosis increase proliferation of T cell lymphocytes decrease teh effects of bacterial endotoxins
what signals a fever anterior hypothalamus - arachidonic acid pathway needs prostaglandin E2
what are the functions of the complement system opsonization chemotaxis inflammation cell lysis/ apoptosis
complement system: classical pathway antibodies bind antigen following invasion. the complex is recognized by some complement proteins, which immediately bind and activate a cascade of events complement activation cascade
complement system: mannan-binding lectin pathway mannose (sugar residues on pathogen surfaces) binds leptin. this binding triggers teh activation of serine prteases that initiate the complement cascade
complement system: alternative pathway pathogen surfaces spontaneously lead to complement activation
what are the 3 major roles of the complement activation cascade 1) chemotaxis and inflammation - recruit phagocytes to the site of invasion 2) opsonization of pathogens -tag pathogens 3) membrane attack complex - peptides adhere to cell surface, disrupt the phospholipid bilayer - cell lysis and death
specific/ nonspecific: classical complement pathway specific
specific/ nonspecific: alternative complement pathway non-specific
what are the two main classes of immune defenses cell mediated, humoral (antibody) mediated
describe cell mediated - acquired immune defenses carried out by T lymphocytes MOA direct cell to cell contact defence against intracellular pathogens
describe humoral (antibody) mediated acquired immune defenses carried out by B lymphocytes MOA circulating antibodies defence against extracellular pathogens
acquire immune defences: primary immune response exposure to an antigen triggers clonal expansion and the immune response
acquired immune defences: secondary immune response when memory cells are re exposed to the appropriate antigen, the clone expands more rapidly to create additional effector and memory cells
cell mediated immunity protects against pathogens activating antigen-specific cytotoxic T to kill infected self cells activating antigen-specific helper T cells to secrete cytokines that function to stimulat other leukocytes involved in innate and specific immune responses
what are the two main cell types in cell mediated immunity helper T cells CD4 cytotoxic T cells CD8
cell-mediated immunity: t cell maturation thymus each T cell has a unique TCR generated by rearrangement of genes encoding TCR checkpoints ensure successful genetic rearrangement and not self reactive
T cell activation is MHC restricted by... coreceptor
cytotic T cell activation requires what 2 signals peptide TCR engaged to antigen -MHC1 CD8 coreceptor bound to MHC 1
helper T cells activation requires what 2 signals antigen presenting cell TCR engaged to antigen-MHCII CD4 coreceptor bound to MHCII
helper T cells can also activate ______ and ______ cells to enhance their phagocytic function macrophage and dendritic cells
cytotoxic T cell kill via apoptosis: perforin and granzymes cell to cell interaction via FasL (Tc) and Fas(target)
humoral mediated immunity: B cell development and maturation takes place.... in bone marrow BCR contains unique antibody, gnerated by rearrangment of genes check points ensure successful genetic rearrangement and not self reacttive
self reactive results in editing or apoptosis
what are the 5 classes of antibodies/ immunoglobulins IgG IgE IgD IgM IgA
IgG antibodies account for 80% of all antibodies responsible for resistance against many viruses, bacteria and bacterial toxins
IgE attaches as an individual molecule to the expose surfaces of basophils and mast cells
IgD individual molecule on the surfaces of B cells where it can bind antigens in the extracellular fluid. this binding can play a role in the sensitization of the B cell involved
IgM first class of antibody secreted after an antigen is encountered. concentration declines as IgG production accelerates. the anti-A and B antibodies responsible for the agglutination of incompatible blood tpes
IgA found primarily in glandular secretion such as mucus, teas, saliva and semen. attack pathogens before they gain access to internal tissues
B cell activation and expansion 2 types of T cells T cell dependent/ independent
type 1 and 2 T cell independent activation 1 - antigen bind toll-like receptors 2 - repetitive nature antigen cross-link BCR
what are the functions of teh antibody in humoral mediated immunity direct enhancement of phagocytosis complement activation antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity direct neutralization of small molecules mast cell activation active immunization
Created by: 500762379