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Reproductive system

Physiology Block D:Support Systems

describe the follicle cycle primary follicles; secondary follicles; mature follicle; ruptured follicle; ovulated oocyte; corpus luteum; regressing corups luteum (corpus albicans)
explain the layers of the ovary in the tertiary follicle surface epithelium; theca; basal lamina; granulosa cells; antral fluid
what are the functions of the ovary hormone secretion; production of egg (ovarian cycle); prepare uterus for implantation (regulates uterine cycle); maintenance of pregnancy
what stimulates ovary hormone secretion hypothalamus signals GnRH which signals anterior pituitary to release FSH and LH in the ovary
granulosa cells stimulate oogenesis; secrete inhibin, AMH, estrogen, progesterone
thecal cells secrete androgens (testosterone)
what are the phases of the uterine cycle menses proliferative phase secretory phase
which hormone is highest during ovulation estrogen inhibin
what hormone dominates during the maturation of the corpus luem progesterone
oogenesis oogonium becomes primary oocyte (mitosis); secondary oocyte and polar bodies (meiosis 1); polar bodies degreade and 1 becomes egg
what are the phases of the ovarian cycle before FSH stimulation; early follicular phase; late follicular phase; luteal phase; post -luteal phase
hormone control in the early to mid-follicular phase increased estrogen by granulos calls which inhibit FSH, LH and GnRH
hormone control in the late follicular phase and ovulation high estrogen and small amount of progesterone increase GnRH and LH granulosa cells secrete inhibit which inhibits FSH
hormone control in early to mid-luteal phase corpus luteum secretes increased estrogen and high progesteron and high inhibin which inhibits GnRH and anterior pituitary gland - which decreases FSH and LH
hormone control in the late-luteal phase corpus lutem dies which decreases estrogen and progesterone GnRH tonic secretion resumes which increases FSH and LH FSH causes new follicles to develop
female vs male hormone control female hormone control is a cycle male hormone control is continuous
male hormone control FSH stimulates sertoli cells to stimulate spermatogenesis and secrete inhibit which inhibits FSH LH stimulates leydig cells to produce testosterone which produces DHT which inhibit GnRH and LH
leydig cells stimulated by LH produce testosterone and DHT
sertoli cells stimulated by FSH support gametes secrete ihibin AMH - anti-mullerian hormone
thecal cells stimulated by LH produce testosterone
granulosa cells stimulated by FSH and (LH) support gametes secrete inhibin, estrogen , progesterone, AMH
androgens (females) produced in the adrenal gland, that ovary, and from the peripheral conversion of prohormones necessary for the synthesis of estrogen regulation of many organs secondary sex characteristics
androgen is involved in the regulation of which organs reproductive; bone; kidneys; liver; muscle
what are secondary sex characteristics of androgen body shape pubic and armpit hair growth sex drive
what are different forms of contraceptives abstinence surgical - vasectomy/ tubal ligation interventional - condoms, vaginal caps, permicides, implantation prevention, hormonal treatment
what do oral contraceptives do in females keep estrogen and progesterone high which inhibit GnRH and FSH and LH inhibit ovulation inhibit implantation - inhibit estrogen-induced endometrial proliferation prevent passage of sperm
sex organs consists of which 3 sets of structure gonads - ovaries/ testes internal genitalia external genitalia
sexual differentiation process of development of the differences between males and females from an undifferentiated zygote (fertilized egg).
chromosomal sex a chromosome, differing in shape or function from other chromosomes, that determines the sex of an individual.
gonadal sex testes vs ovaries
diploid cells 46 chromosomes 22 homologous pairs of autosomes 1 pair of sex chromosome
haploid cells 23 chromosomes (gametes, ova and sperm) one autosome from each homologous pair one sex chromosome
xx female
xy male
xxy (47) klinefelter's syndrome, sterile male
X0 (45) turner syndrome, female short stature, lack of sexual development
Y0 (45) embyonic lethal
what week of fetal development does sex differentiation occur 7th week
explain how male gonadal sex differentiation occurs y chromosome contains SRY gene which produces TDF and avtivates WT1, SF1, SOX9 which direct development of gonadal medulla into testes
explain how female gonadal sex differentiation occurs female specific genes inteh absence of TDF female specific genes direct the development of gonadal cortex into ovaries
TDF testis determining factor
phenotypic sex early fetus contains 2 primitive duct systems wolffian ducts - male internal genitalia mullerian ducts - female internal genitalia
differentiation of ducts is predetermined by presence or absence of ______________ functional testis
testes function regulation of phenotypic sex differention hormone secretion sperm production
what hormones do the testes secrete anti- mullerian hormone (AMH/ MIS) mullerian inhibiting substance testosterone dihydrotestosterone (DHT)
when is the bipotential stage in the fetus 6 weeks
when is male phenotypic sex apparent in the fetus 11 weeks
what are the internal male genitalia epididymis vas deferens seminal vesicle
what are the external male genitalia penis scrotum prostate
what differentiates into male internal genitalia wolffian ducts
what differentiates into male external genitalia biopotential external genitalia
what causes the jullerian ducts to regress anti-mullerian hormone AMH
what differentiates into female internal genitalia mullerian ducts
what are the internal female genitalia fallopian tube uterus upper vagina
what are the external female genitalia labia (majora and minora clitorus) urethral opening vaginal opening
what does each become in the male/ female: genital tubercle m - gland penis f - clitoris
what does each become in the male/ female: urethral folds and groove m shaft of penis f - laiba minor, opening of vagina, urethra
what does each become in the male/ female: labioscrotal swellings shaft of penis and scrotum; labia majora
what does each become in the male/ female: gonad cortex regresses ovary
what does each become in the male/ female: gonad medulla testis regresses
what does each become in the male/ female: wolffian duct epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicle regresses
what does each become in the male/ female: mullerian duct regresses fallopian tube, uterus, cervix, upper 3rd of vagina
what are function of sertoli cells regulate sperm development provide nourishment for developing sperm form blood-testis barrier to protect germ cells secrete luminal fluid secrete anti-mullerian hormone secrete inhibin secrete androgen binding protein destroy defective sperm
what are pre-fertilization events egg viable for fertilization 12-24 hours after ovulation sperm undergo final maturation step (capacitation) - viable for 5-6 days
capacitation induced by residence in uterus effect of uterine secretions change in tail activity change in head membrane
acrosomal reaction sperm and egg plasma membranes fuse
cortical reaction sperm nucelus moves into cytoplasm of egg; oocyte nucleus completes meiotic division; sperm and egg nuclei fuse to form zygote nucleus
fertilization cycle ovulation; day 1 - fertilization; day 2-4 cell division; 4-5 blastocyst reaches uterus; 5-9 blastocyst implants
the inner cell mass in the blastocyst is... embryo yolk sac allantosis amnion
the trophoblast in the blastocyst is... placenta chorion
what are functions of the placenta (pregnancy) connect fetus to uterine wall excrete fetal waste transfer nutrients gas exchange transfer immunity secretes hormones
what hormones does the placenta secrete (pregnancy) human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) human placental lactogen estrogen progesterone other with unclear functions
what does the chorionic gonadotropin do (pregnancy) bind LH receptors keeps corpus lteum producing progesterone for the first 7 weeks stimulates testosterone production in deeloping male testes hormone detected in pregnancy tests
what does the placental lactogen do (pregnancy) promots mammary gland development for lactation; regulates maternal glucose and fatty acid metabolism to ensure avialabity to fetus
what does estrogen do (pregnancy) work in conjunction with progesterone to exert negative feedback on hypothalamus and pituitary to decrease FSH and LH stimulates uterine growth stimulates development of mammary glands for lactation
what does progesterone do (pregnancy) works in conjunction with estrogen to exert negative feedback on hypothalamus and pituitary to decrease FSH and LH maintains endometrium during pregnancy supress uterine contractions
what hormone is highest during the 10th week of pregnancy HCG
what are the stages of parturition initiation of labor first stage (labor) second stage (child delivery) third stage (placental delivery) post partum (6 weeks after birth)
what initiates labour (mechanism) signal from mother, fetus and/or combination oxytocin corticotropin-releasing hormone changes in estrogen/progesterone ratio increase uterine wall tension
what events innitiate labour softening of cervix loosening of pelvic ligaments fetus drops cervical stretch triggers contractions
what do doctors do to reduce maternal blood loss umbilical cord clamping umbilical cord traction uterine massage
what is placentophagy growing trend of mothers ingesting placenta
what is needed for milk production decrease in prolactin- inhibiting hormone increase prolactin late pregnancy: increase estrogen adn progesterone - colostrum after delivery: estrogen and progesterone decrease - mature milk
colostrum day 1-3 low fat, CHO high protein, NaCl and Vit A mild laxative growth factors cytokine immune cells antibodies antimicrobials
mature milk week 2-3 fore milk (light/thin): thirst quench, low in fat, high in hindmilk: high fat, high protein evolving composition
describe the hormonal control of lactation signal: baby's cry and baby suckling increase prolactin and oxytocin leads to milk secretion, smooth mucle contraction and milk ejected
what is a potential trigger for the onset of puberty leptin kisspeptin genetics (neurokinin B) GnRH pulsating secretions
physical changes of puberty - female menarche pubic hair breast development body shape body odor acne
physical changes of puberty - male growth external genitalia spontaneous erections pubic hair body and facial hair low voice body shape body odor and acne
what are symptoms of menopause headaches and hot flashes hair becomes thinner and loses luster teeth loosen and gums recede breasts droop and flatten risk of CVD nipples becomes smaller and flatten backaches rougher skin pubic thicker and darker stress/urge incontinence
Created by: 500762379



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