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Balance mechanisms

Physiology Block D:Support Systems

QuestionAnswer
what are the 3 possibilities for food after it is ingested, digested and absorbed use it for energy use it to make something new store it for later ( use stored, or broken down)
what are the two functional metabolic states of the body absorptive/ fed state;post absorptive /fasted state
what is the absorptive/fed state nutrients entering blood from GI tract - anabolic pathways
what is the postabsorptive or fasted state no more nutrients from GI tract - catabolic pathways
what is the main source of energy in absorptive/ fed states carbohydrates - glucose
what is glucose used for in the body used for cell energy ATP main source of energy for most cells stored as glycogen, converted to triglycerides, stored as fat
how is glucose stored in the body glycogen: glycogenesis in the liver and skeletal muscle fat: triglycerides; lipogenesiss in liver, stored in adipose tissue
glycogenesis only way carbohydrates are stored glucose to G6P to glycogen
lipogenesis converted glucose to fatty acids glucose to pyrubate to acetyl CoA to fatty acids combine with glycerol to form triglycerides
what is the main source of energy in the absorptive or fed state proteins - amino acids use for protein synthesis (liver and other tissues) convert to triglycerides, stored as fat AA to acetyl CoA to fatty acids
what are the 4 lipoproteins chylomicrons (CM) very low density lipoproteins low density lipoproteins high density lipoproteins
lipoprotein lipase in capillary endothelium, remove fatty acids from triglyceride
fatty acids in fed state used as energy source in fed state
triglycerides in fed state reassembled and store in adipose tissue in fed state
CM remnant transport in fed sate cholesterol transported to liver where CM is degraded
VLDL transport in fed sate triglycerides from liver to adipocytes
LDL transport in fed sate cholesterol to tissue
HDL transport in fed sate cholesterol to liver
when there is decreased blood supply of nutrients to add more the body must.... glygogenolysis - glycogen to glucose in liver; lipolysis - stored triglycerides to fatty acids and glycerol; protein catabolism - protein to amino acids
in relation to the brain why is it important to maintain plasma glucose levels normally only uses glucose for energy production
what are 3 ways to get more glucose in the body glycogenolysis - use liver glycogen stores; create new glucose - gluconeogenesis (liver), amino acids, lactate, pyruvate, glycerol; glucose sparing - tissues switch to more fatty acids to switch to more fatty acids
what happens after prolonged starvation lipolysis - fatty acids in the liver are converted into ketone bodies
ketoacidosis ketones in the blood greatly decrease the pH of the blood
what is the hormonal control of absorptive states insulin - beta cells of endocrine pancreas
what is the hormonal control of postabsorptive states glucagon - alpha cells of endocrine pancreas
in the abosorptive state what processes increase glucose oxidation; glycogen synthesis; fat synthesis; protein synthesis
in teh postabpsorptive state, what processes increase glycogenolysis gluconeogenesis ketogenesis
what increases insulin plasma levels increased plasma glucose increased plasma amino acids GIP, GLP-1 parasympathetic stimulation
what decreases insulin plasma levels sympathetic stimulation plasma epinephrine
what increases glucagon plasma levels decreased plasma glucose levels; increased plasma amino acids
hyperglycemia insulin secretion increases and glucagon secretion decreases insulin effects dominate glucagon effects
describe how insulin is secreted from the beta cells high glucose levels causes higher glucose entry which increases metabolism and ATP production; potassium channels close which depolarizes the cell opening Calcium channels which release insulin
what happens when plasma insulin levels increase target cell - hepatocytes, skeletal muscle, adipocytes insulin binds to receptors on cell membrane substrates phosphorylated changing their actions second messenger pathways change transcription or activity of enzymes change in metabolism
how is glucose transported in skeletal muscle and adipocytes when there is no insulin there are no transporters; insulin binds to receptor which signals transduction cascade - exocytosis so glucose can enter cell
how else will put transporters in the membrane exercising muscle
describe glucose transport liver hepatocytes glucose moves down its concentration gradient; hexokinase-mediated conversion of glucose to G6P keeps intracellular glucose low
hypoglycemia glucagon secretion increases, insulin secretion decreases glucagon only affects the liver
what is the sympathetic nervous system's response to hypoglycemia noreepinephrine and epinephrine - inhibit insulin secretion glucagon secretion; directly affect liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue
describe how each of the following make glucose liver, adipocytes, skeletal muscle liver - glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis adipocytes - lipolysis skeletal muscle - glycogenolysis
what is cortisol's role in the hypoglycemia required for gluconeogenesis and lipolysis to occur (stress hormone)
describe type 1 diabetes mellitus elevated blood glucose levels autoimmune disorder - immune system attacks beta cells inadequate secretion of insulin by beta cells of pancreas cannot move glucose out of blood into tissues so glucagon dominates
describe type 2 diabetes mellitus insulin secreted in response to increased blood glucose, target cells no longer respond to insulin insulin resistance
calcium is necessary for what processes neurotransmitter release; muscle contraction; second messenger; blood clotting factors
how does calcium get into plasma dietary calcium absorbed into ECF; in the bone calcium is resorbed - remodelled; in the kidney calcium is reabsorbed - reclaimed
osteoblasts deposit calcium into bone extracellular matrix build bone
osteoclasts resorb calcium from bone into plasma breakd- low palsm own bone so calcium can enter blood stream
what 3 hormones regulate plasma calcium parathyroid hormone calcitriol calcitonin
calcitriol vit D acitvated in kidney by PTH modifies the activity of bone cells, important for the formation of new bone regulates calcium levels in the blood by helping the body to absorb calcium from food and by preventing calcium loss from the kidneys
PTH parathyroid hormone - glands secrete PTH due to low plasma calcium concentration
calcitonin c cells in thyroid glands secrete calcitonin due to high plasma calcium concentration actions opposite to PTH only has a minor role in normal regulation
osteoporosis to much resorption of bone
what is metabolism output heat, work, stored energy
what leads to energy input hunger, satiety, other factors
what leads to energy output heat - unregulated byproduct of work and temp regulation; work - membrane transport, mechanical work (movement, chemical work (synthesis); storage - chemical bonds, ATP
metabolic rate = total energy expenditure/time kcal or calorie
calorie amount of heat required to raise the temp of 1L of H2O by 1 degree celcius
BMR metabolic rate of subject at rest physically and mentally at a comfortable room temperature in teh post absorptive state ( no food for at least 12 hours)
direct calorimetry measure change in temp foods - fat 9kcal/g carbs/ protein 4 kcal/g
indirect calorimetry measure O2 consumption metabolic rate = kcal/hour O2 used L/hour x 4.8 kcal/L
what affects metabolic rate age gender lean muscle mass exercise food hormones
what type of hormones are most important for BMR thyroid, epinephrine
what increases BMR food induced thermogenesis - rapid increase muscle activity - largest increase
what controls food intake hypothalamus - feeding(hunger) center - tonically active; satiety center - inhibits feeding centre; neuropeptide Y; leptin
tonically active slow continuous activity
neuropeptide Y brain neurotransmitter stimulates food intake
leptin produced by fat cells inhibits NPY in animals
input + production = loss (heat)
what are heat gain and heat loss mechanisms radiation - both; conduction - both; convection - loss only; evaporation - loss only
what is the ideal core temperature for the body 37
how does the body decrease body temp skin temperature signals peripheral thermoreceptors sending signals to hypothalamus
how does the body increase body temp core temperature signals core thermoreceptors which signal hypothalamus
how does the hypothalamus respond when it's too cold increase heat production: shivering, voluntary muscle activity decrease heat production: vasoconstriction of skin arterioles
how does the hypothalamus respond when it's too hot decrease heat production - decrease muscle activity increase heat loss - vasodialtion of skin arterioles sweating
hypothermia abnormally low core temperature
hyperthermia abnormally high core temperature
heat exhaustion severe dehydration; core temp 38-39
heat stroke more severe, higher temp mortality 50%
what causes a fever infection; bacteria release toxins; response- immune cells release pyrogens; increase hypothalamic thermostat setpoint; FEVER; increase heat production - decrease heat loss; increase core temp to new set point
Created by: 500762379