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Cardiovascular

Exam 4

QuestionAnswer
3 Main Parts of Cardiovascular System Heart (pump), Blood (whats being pumped), Vessels (pump)
Cells of the body are serviced by what two fluids Blood and Interstitial Fluid
What is blood composed of Plasma and a variety of cells
What is blood - Classified as a tissue of the body - Fully Moveable tissue since it circulates throughout the vascular blood
6 Physiological Roles of the blood 1. Gas Transport 2. Nutrient Transport 3. Waste Removal - Transport 4. Temperature Regulation 5. Infection - immunological defense 6. Protection from disease and fluid loss
What Percent of a persons body weight is blood 8%
Average male has how many liters of blood 5 liters
Average female has how many liters of blood 4-5 liters
Components of blood 55% Plasma 45% formed elements
Percent of water in blood plasma 90%
Percent of plasma proteins 7%
Percent of other substances in blood plasma 2%
Other substances found in blood plasma Erythrocyte, Leukocyte, Thrombocyte
Erythrocytes are also known as this Red Blood Cells (RBC)
What is blood doping Injecting previously stored RBC's before an athletic event
Why is blood doping so dangerous Increases blood viscosity and forces the heart to work harder
What is Induced Polycythemia Blood doping, exogenous EPO, altitude exposure, hypobaric chamber
Hematrocrit Percentage of blood volume composed by RBC
Anemia RBC Deficiency
What are RBC's made from Bone Marrow
Leukocytes are also known as White Blood Cells (WBC)
Number of WBC per drop of blood 5000-10000 1 WBC for every 700 RBC
Thrombocytes are also known as Platelets
Normal Platelet count 150,000 - 400,000/drop of blood
Definition of blood clotting Consists of a network of insoluble protein fibers called fibrin in which the formed elements are trapped
What is a Vascular Spasm Contraction of smooth muscle in arterioles or arteries
Platelet Plug Formation Platelet adhesion to blood vessel, aggregation and then platelet plug
What are ventricles Primary pumping chambers of the heart
Atrioventricular Valves Separate the atria and ventricles
Semi Lunar Valves Separate the ventricles from the blood vessels leaving the heart
3 Layers of the heart wall Epicardium, Myocardium, Endocardium
Epicardium Visceral layer of serous pericardium
Myocardium Cardiac muscle layer is the bulk of the heart
Endocardium Chamber lining and valves
3 parts of blood flow Systemic, Pulmonary, Coronary Circulations
Blue Blood flows means this Deoxygenated
Red blood flow indicates this Oxygenated
Coronary Arteries Deliver oxygenated blood to the heart muscles
Coronary Veins Collects wastes from cardiac muscles
Myocardial Ischemia - Reduced blood flow through coronary arteries - Causes hypoxia and may weaken the myocardial cells - Often manifested through angina pectoris
Infarction - Complete obstruction of flow in a coronary artery (heart attack) - Tissue distal to the obstruction dies and is replaced by scar tissue
Pacemakers Pacemaker cells at the sinoatrial node fires spontaneously acting as a pacemaker and forming conduction system for the heart
Regulation by the ANS ANS Signals such as epinephrine modify HR and contractility, but they do not establish the fundamental rhythm
Use of an ECG Helps to determine if the conduction pathway is abnormal
Systole Contraction
Diastole Relaxation
Atrial Contraction Blood goes into ventricle, AV valves open, SL valves close
Isovolumetric Contraction Ventricles Contract, AV Valves close, pressure increases, begins to open SL waves
Ventricular Filling Pressure in atria increases, AV valves open and ventricles fill
Mean arterial pressure The average amount of pressure in the systemic arteries
Calculation for Mean Arterial Pressure MAP = DBP + 1/3 PP
2 Variables in creating pressure 1. The amount of fluid being pumped into the system 2. The amount resistance the system generates against the flow
2 Variables that can alter pressure 1. Change the amount of blood pumped 2. Changing the amount of resistance
3 Influences for amount of resistance 1. Thickness of the blood 2. The diameter of vessels 3. The distance the blood travels
Factors Affecting Stroke Volume Contractility, Preload, Afterload
Contractility The forcefulness of contraction of the ventricle fibers, depends on the calcium kinetics and agents that increase of decrease the availability of calcium in sarcolemma
Preload The degree of stretch of the heart before contraction
Afterload The pressure that must be overcome before a semilunar valve opens and blood can be sent to pulmonary and systemic circulation
Electrocardiograms Impulse conduction through the heart generates electrical currents that can be detected at the surface of the body
ECG or EKG A recording of the electrical changes that accompany each cardiac cycle
The ECG Helps to determine what If the conduction pathway is abnormal, if the heart is enlarged, and if certain regions are damaged
ECG Vectors Activity that progresses "side to side" without moving towards or away from the lead is measured as no or an alternating vector
ECG Leads Each ECG Lead looks at the heart from a different angle
Cardiac Cycle Phases Atrial Contraction, Isovolumetric contraction, ventricular ejection, isovolumetric relaxation, ventricular filling
Atrial Contraction Blood goes into ventricle, AV valves open, SL valves close
Isovolumetric Contraction Ventricles contract, AV valves close, pressure increases, begins to open SL waves
Ventricular Ejection SL valves open, blood is ejected to pulmonary and systemic circulations
Isovolumetric relaxation All 4 valves are closed, atria fills with blood, intraventricular pressure decreases
Ventricular Filling Pressure in atria increases, AV Valves open and ventricles fill
Calculation for amount of blood pumped Cardiac Output (Q) = Heart Rate (beats/minute) x Stroke Volume (amount/beat)
Venous Return Volume of blood flowing back to the heart from the systemic veins
SVR Systemic Vascular Resistance
TPR Total Peripheral Resistance
SVR or TPR Same things, sum of all friction between blood and the walls of vessels
3 influences of SVR or TPR Size of lumen, blood viscosity, total blood vessel length
Hemodynamics Blood flows from areas of higher pressure to areas of lower pressure
How does the change in the diameter of the lumen affect flow The SMALLER the radius of the vessel, the GREATER the resistance it offers to blood
Blood viscosity depends on this Ratio of RBC to Plasma (hematocrit)
Regulation of blood pressure Neural, Hormonal, Autoregulation
Neural Regulation of Blood Pressure Signals to smooth muscle, and regulating vessel diameter
Hormonal Regulation of Blood Pressure - Renin, Angiotensin, Aldosterone System - Epinephrine - Norepinephrine - ADH - ATP
Created by: brianamikel