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Lecture 39

GI Intro-Mouth-Esophagus

GI Layers mucose-epithelial cells.submucoas-longitdinal muscle,submucosal plexus.muscularis-circular and longitudinal smooth muscle,myenteric plexus.serosa-outer epithelial layer,produces serosal fluid
GI Innervation plexuses-neurons-control local contractions.longitudinal muscle-propulsion of chyme.circular muscle-mixing food and secretions
Parasympathetic Neurons active plexus leads to inc GI activity.symp neurons dec GI activity
Baisc Electrical Rhythm variable electrical baselines-ca2+ and k+ channels open/close.contraction when BER reaches threshold and AP's occur
Migrating Motility Complex strong contraction migrates from stomach to end of SI.starts as previous meal nears complete digestion.clears stomach and SI in anticipation of next meal.
GI Hormones released in diff areas.both upstream and downstream effects
Gastrin from stomach-proteins strongest stimulus for release. inc stomach secretion of acid and pepsinogen. inc SI ileocecal valve relaxations leads to empties SI.initiates mass movement in LI the triggers defecation
Cholecystokinin secreted by duodenum into blood when fat or protein present.causes contraction of gal bladder.causes release of pancreatic digestive enzymes.inhibits stomach secretions.
Secretin secreted from duodenum into blood when h+ in duodenum inc secretion of pancreatic digestive enzymes.inhibits stomach secretions
Mouth little digestion here.almost no absorp-only some medicine.nitroglycerin absrbed by oral mucosa
Secretions bicarbonate neutralizes acids.h2o,amylase,lipase,mucus (to coat food) lysosome-antibacterial enzyme
Swallowing Deglutition.boluses formed-coated w/mucus.voluntary propulsion tp pharynx.reflex relaxation off upper esophageal sphincter.bolus forced into esophagus
Esophagus tube to stomach-sphincter AT each end.5-9 sec transit time to stomach.no digestion or absorp
Sphincters upper e. sphincter relaxes upon swallowing.peristatic contractions behind bolus force it into stomach.lower e.sphincter normally tightly closed-relaxes to let bolus in.
Reflux acid into esophagus through LES.loss of neural input most common cause.acid irritates esophagus-heart burn-potential ulcer.
Gas in stomach.swallowed gas-some burped out-some absorbed-some to colon.most colonic gas is bacterial
Created by: danamarie9323