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Chapter 12, 13, 14

Stakeholders directly or indirectly benefit from the systems development project.
Why initiate a systems development project? Problems with existing system. Increasing competition. Organizational growth. Merger or acquisition. New laws or regulations.
Creative analysis Investigating new approaches to existing problems. No question is a bad question.
Critical analysis Unbiased and careful questioning of whatever system elements are related in the most effective ways. Punch holes in information. Critic.
Programmer Specialist responsible for developing or modifying programs to satisfy user requirements. Writes programs and codes.
Performance objectives Output quality, usefulness, accuracy. Speed at which output is produced. Risk of the system.
Cost objectives Development costs, uniqueness of system application, investments in hardware and related equipment, operating costs.
Systems investigation Identifies problems and opportunities and considers them in light of business goals. Understand the problem.
Systems analysis Studies existing systems and work processes to identify strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities for improvement. Understand the solution.
Systems design How the information system will do what it must do to obtain the problem's solution. Primary output. Select & plan best solution.
Systems implementation Creates or acquires various system components detailed in systems design, assembles them, and places new or modified system into operation. Place solution into effect.
Systems maintenance and review Ensures the system operates as intended. Modifies the system so that it continues to meet changing business needs. Evaluate results of solution.
The later in the SDLC an error is detected... The more expensive it is to correct. Previous phases must be reworked. More people are affected.
When to use Outsourcing and On-Demand Computing I don't have the time and/or expertise.
Systems Development success Deliver a system that meets user and organizational needs on time and within budget. Get users and stakeholders involved.
Degree of Change Continuous improvement projects; high degree of success, relatively modest benefits. Managing change; ability to recognize and deal with existing or potential problems.
Quality and Standards Quality of project planning; bigger the project, the most likely that poor planning will lead to significant problems. Capability Maturity Model (CMM); one way to measure organizational experience.
Project Management Tools Critical path; activities that, if delayed, would delay the entire project.
PERT and Gantt Chart Program evaluation and review technique (PERT) creates three time estimates for an activity; shortest possible time, most likely time, longest possible time. Gantt Chart- graphical tool used for planning, monitoring, and coordinating projects.
What does the investigation team do? Feasibility analysis; is it do-able? Establishes systems development goals. Prepares systems investigation report. Managers, users, and stakeholders, and IS personnel.
Feasibility Analysis Technical Economic; net present value. Legal Operational Schedule
Systems Investigation Report Summarizes results of systems investigation and the process of feasibility analysis. Recommends a course of action; continue on into systems analysis, modify the project in some manner, drop the project. Reviewed by steering committee.
Factors that have a strong influence on project success Degree of Change. Quality and Standards. Use of Project Management Tools.
Logical Design Output, input, process, files & database, telecommunications, procedures, controls & security, personnel & job design
Physical Design How the logical design will be delivered. Hardware, software, database, telecommunications, personnel, procedures & control design.
Design of System Security and Controls Preventing, detecting, and correcting errors. Disaster recovery.
Four approaches/techniques to system evaluation Group consensus, cost/benefit analysis, benchmark tests, point evaluation.
The Design Report The primary result of systems design, reflects the decisions made and preparing the way for systems implementation.
Systems Implementation Hardware acquisition, programming and software acquisition or development, user preparation, hiring and training of personnel, site and data preparation, installation, testing, start-up, and user acceptance.
Make or buy decision Whether to obtain software from external or internal sources.
Software as Service (SaaS) allows businesses to subscribe to web-delivered application software by paying a monthly service charge.
Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) combines software from various vendors into a finished system.
Techniques used for in-house software CASE and object-oriented approaches, cross-platform development, integrated development environment, documentation.
Steps required when using externally developed software acquire software, modify or customize, acquire interfaces, test and accept, monitor and maintain and make necessary modifications.
Steps in the program life cycle language and software selection, program coding, testing and debugging, documentation, implementation or conversion.
Key characteristics of structure programming top down approach, modular approach, use of programming structures; sequence, decision, loop - iteration.
User preparation phase Training; communicating system capabilities and limitations.
Steps involved in testing the information system Unit, system, volume, integration, acceptance, alpha, beta testing
Start up process of making the final tested information system fully operational.
Start up/conversion methods direct conversion, phase-in approach, pilot start up, parallel start up.
Reasons for program maintenance changes in business processes, new requests from users, bugs or errors, technical or hardware problems.
Types of maintenance slipstreams upgrade, patch, release, version.
Types of Review Procedures Event-driven review- triggered by a problem or opportunity. Time-driven review -performed after a specified amount of time.
Computer Waste Junk email- spam. CAN-SPAM Act- 3forms of compliance: receivers must be able to unsubscribe, content of the email, sending behavior.
Preventing computer-related waste and mistakes Establishing, implementing, monitoring, reviewing policies and procedures.
The Computer as a Tool to Commit Crime Social engineering- using social skills to get users to provide info. dumpster diving- finding secret or confidential info.
The computer as the object of crime illegal access and use; criminal hacker, Trojan horse. antivirus programs, spyware, info and equipment theft, unsafe disposal of personal computers, patent and copyright violations, computer related scams.
Preventing computer-related crime crime prevention by state and federal agencies, using managed security service providers (MSSPs), filtering and classifying internet content.
Individual efforts to protect privacy find out what is stored about you in databases, be careful when you share info, be proactive to protect your privacy, when purchasing online; safeguard your cc numbers, passwords, and personal info.
Health concerns in the work environment occupational stress, seated immobility thromboembolism, carpal tunnel syndrome, video display terminal bill
SDLC Systems Development Life Cycle
Created by: kirstieallie