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Intro Athletic Training 2

What are the 4 types of soft tissue? Epithelial tissue (skin, vessel, & organ lining), Connective tissue (tendons, ligaments, cartilage, fat, blood, and bone), Muscle tissue (skeletal, smooth, cardiac muscle), Nerve tissue (brain, spinal cord and nerves)
What are the 3 phases of the healing process? Inflammatory response phase (0 to 4 days), Fibroblastic repair phase (4 days to 6 weeks), Maturation-remodeling phase (4 weeks to 2-3 years)
What are the 3 phases of inflammation? Phase 1- acute injury, phase 2- repair, phase 3- remodeling
What is the inflammatory response sequence? 1. injury to cell 2. Chemical mediators liberated 3. Vascular reaction 4. Platelets and leukocytes adhere to vascular wall 5. Phagocytosis, 6. Clot formation
Name 3 chemical mediators liberated during inflammation. Histamine, Leukotrienes, Cytokines
Give the sequence of vascular reaction. 1. vasoconstriction 2. vasodilation 3. exudate creates stasis
What is exudate? Accumulation of fluid that penetrates through vessel walls into and joining extravascular space.
What 3 main things occur during Fibroblastic repair? scar tissue formation, swelling stops, and pain decreases
What does granulation tissue consist of? fibroblasts, collagen, and capillaries
Maturation-remodeling phase allows the body to return to normal state by? realigning the collagen to applied forces, continuing to breaked and synthesis collagen which increases strength
What factors can impede healing? Extent of injury, edema, hemorrhage, poor vascular supply, separation of tissue, muscle spasm, atrophy, corticosteriods, keloids and hypertrophic scars, infection, humidty, climate and oxygen tension, health, age, and nutrition
What are the five Kubler-Ross reactions? 1. Denial 2. Anger 3. Bargaining 4. Depression 5. Acceptance
What are the three reactive phases of injury? 1. reaction to injury 2. reaction to rehabilitation 3. reaction to return
What are the psychological barriers to rehabilitation? depression or grief, anxiety, anger, agitation, aggression, denial, sleep disturbance, psychosocial isolation, substance abuse
What is the athletic trainer's role in providing social support? be a good listener, find out what the problem is, be aware of body language, project a caring image, explain the injury to the patient, manage the stress of the injury, help the athlete return to competition
What is stress? The positive and negative forces that can disrupt the body's equilibrium
What is anxiety? A feeling of uncertainty or apprehension
What are the signs and symptoms of staleness? A decrease in performance level, difficulty falling asleep, awakening from sleep for no apparent reason, a loss of apetite and weight, indigestion, difficulty concentrating, nausea for no apparent reason, head colds, elevated resting heart rate and elevat
What are the nine factors incorporated in goal setting for an athlete? Set specific and measurable goals, use positive versus negative language, goals should be challenging but realistic, set a reasonable timetable, integreate short medium and long-term goals, link outcome to process, internalize goals, monitor and evaluate
What is the purpose of a primary survey? Assesses life-threatening injuries
What is the purpose of a secondary survey? Assesses the existing innjury more precisely
Name 5 life-threatening conditions. Airway obstruction, no breathing, no circulation, profuse bleeding, and shock
What are the signs of shock? Blood pressure is low, systolic pressure is usually below 90 mmHg, pulse is rapid and weak, patient may be drowsy and appear sluggish, respiration is shallow and extremely rapid, skin is pale, cool, and clammy
What 9 vital signs should be observed during the secondary survey? Level of consciousness, pulse, respiration, blood pressure, temperature, skin color, pupils, movement, and abnormal nerve response
What guidelines can be applied when splinting injuries? cover any open wounds, splint injury in the position it was found, make sure the splint does not permit injury, immobilize the joints above and below the injury, elevate splinted extremity if possible, apply a cold pack to injury around the splint, contin
Give 4 types of splints. Rapid form vacuum immobilizer, air splint, sam splint, and half-ring splint (traction)
What are the names of the 9 quadrants of the abdomen? Right hypochondriac, epigastric, left hypochondriac, right lateral abdominal, umbilical, left lateral abdominal, right inguinal, hypogastric, left inguinal
What is sequela? condition resulting from disease or injury
What is a syndrome? group of symptoms that indicate a condition or disease
What does HOPS stand for? History, Observation, Palpation, Special tests
What are the important things to ask in regards to a patients history? have there been injuries to the body part before? Any related injuries? what is the MOI? Where is the injury location? What are the pain characteristics? What is the joint responses? Is the injury acute or chronic?
Give things to look for during observation. Demeanor, movement, posture, asymmetrics, deformity, swelling, redness, warmth
What are the two types of palpation? bony palpation and soft-tissue palpation
What two things does movement examination include? active movement and passive movement
What are the 4 normal end feels? soft-tissue approximation, capsular feel, bone to bone, muscular
What are the characteristics of a soft-tissue end point? soft and spongy, a gradual painless stop (e.g. knee flexion)
What are the characteristics of a capsular feel end point? an abrupt, hard, firm endpoint with only a little give (e.g. knee end point of hip rotation)
What are the characteristics of a bone to bone end point? a distinct and abrupt endpoint when two hard surfaces come in contact with one another (e.g. elbow in full extension)
What are the characteristics of a muscular end point? a springy feel with some associated discomfort (e.g. end of shoulder abduction)
What are the 4 abnormal end feels? empty feel, spasm, loose, springy block
What are the characteristics of a empty feel end point? movement is definitely beyond the anatomical limit, and pain occurs before the end of the range (e.g. a complete ligament rupture)
What are the characteristics of a spasm end point? involuntary muscle contraction that prevents motion because of pain; also called guarding (e.g. back spasms)
What are the characteristics of a loose end point? occurs in extreme hypermobility (e.g. previously sprained ankle)
What are the characteristics of a springy block end point? a rebound at the endpoint (e.g. meniscus tear)
What is a dermatome? Area of skin innervated by a single nerve
What is a myotome? Muscle or groups of muscles innervated by a specific motor nerve
What are the 4 parts of a SOAP note? Subjective, Objective, Assessment, Plan
Name 4 tools that can be used to remove a face mask? FM extractor, pruner, electric cordless screwdriver, trainers angel
What are the 4 reasons a helmet or chin strap should be removed when you have a possible cervical inury? 1. the helmet and chin strap do not hold the head securely and immobilizing the helmet does not immobilize the head 2. the design of the helmet and chin strap is such that, even after removal of the facemask the airway cannot be controlled or ventilation
Created by: gunrock
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