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First test review

Intro Athletic Training 1

What are some of the Professional org. that are related to athletic training. 1. NATA 2. NCAA National Collegiate Athletic Association 3. SWATA 4.AAP American Academy of Pediatrics 5. American College of Sports Medicine ACSM 6. American Orthopedic Society for Sports Medicine 7. NSCA 8. National Academy of Sports Medicine
What is the organization that is involved with AT education. CAATE --- Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education.
What are the six domains of Athletic Training 1. Prevention 2. Clinical Evaluation and diagnosis 3. Immediate Care 4. Treatment, Rehab and Reconditioning 5. Organization and Administration 6. Professional responsibility.
What five things does prevention consist of ? 1. Dev. Training and conditioning prog. 2. Ensure a safe playing environment 3. selecting fitting and maintaining protective equip 4. nutritional edu. 5. using meds properly.
What four things does clinical evaluation and diagnosis consist of? 1. Physical examinations 2. Understanding pathology of injury and illness 3. Referral to medical care 4. Referral to support services.
What does immediate care of injury and illness consist of? On-field evaluation and care of acute injury.
What four things does Treatment rehab and reconditioning consist of ? 1. Rehab prog. design 2. rehab prog. supervision 3. Using therapeutic modalities 4. Offering psycho social intervention
What four things does organization and administration consist of ? 1. Record keeping 2. Ordering equip and supplies 3. supervising personnel 4. establishing basic AT prog. policies.
What four things does professional responsibilities consist of ? 1. Being an educator 2. promoting the proffesion 3. being a counselor 4. Being a researcher.
What are the seven professional Behaviors that an athletic trainer must have? 1. Stamina 2. Ability to react 3. Empathy 4. Sense of humor 5. Communication 6. Intellectual curiosity 7. Ethical practice
What behavioral situation can arise if an athletic trainer does not have stamina in the profession? They can be subject to BURNOUT
What org. recognized us and how were we recognized giving the profession credibility? June 1990 The AMA American Medical Association officially recognized us as an Allied Health Profession.
Continuing education? We must obtain 80 hours of CEU's over a three year period to stay current with our certification.
Since Jan. 2004 all those who want to sit for BOC must be what? Must be a graduate from an accredited undergrad. or masters entry-level athletic training program.
Accreditation of the Athletic Training Education Program is decided by who? The Joint Review Committee on Educational Programs in Athletic Training.
Who does the Joint Review Committee on Educational Programs in Athletic Training report to? Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs.
What is athletic training scope of practice? A form of health care that includes the practice of preventing, recognizing, assessing, managing, treating, disposing of, and reconditioning athletic injuries under the direction of a licensed physician licensed.
What are the seven things that should be included on the PreParticipation Exams(Physical exam)? 1. Medical History 2. Physical examination 3. Orthopedic examination 4. Cardiovascular screening 5. Maturity assessment 6.Wellness screening. 7. Specific Sport Dis qualifiers
What are the seven areas of concern when it comes to environmental conditions? 1. Hyperthermia 2. Hypothermia 3. Altitude 4. Exposure to sun 5. Lightning Storms 6. Air pollution 7. Circadian dysrythmia
Def. of Hyperthermia? An acute condition when the body produces or absorbs more heat than it can dissipate.
What are the eight types of common heat illnesses? 1. Heat rash 2. Heat syncope 3. Heat cramps 4. Exertional Heat Exhaustion 5. Exertional Heat Stroke 6. Malignant Hyperthermia 7. Acute Exertional Rhabdomylosis 8. Exertional hyponatremia
Def. of Hypothermia? When body temperature drops below that required for normal metabolism and bodily functions.
What are the two types of common hypothermia illnesses? Frost nip and Frostbite
Frost nip involves what parts of the body. Ears , Nose , Chin , Fingers , and Toes
How does frost nip occur? With high wind or sever cold
Three observations with frost nip? 1.Skin appears firm 2.Cold painless areas 3.Skin may peel or blister
What are the three ways to treat frost nip? 1. Firm pressure 2. blowing warm air 3. hands in armpits.
What are he two types of Frostbite? 1. Superficial Frostbite 2. Deep Frostbite
How do you get frostbite? Prolonged exposure to cold due to poor peripheral circulation.
Deep frostbite requires what two things? 1. Hospitalization 2. Rapid rewarming
What is heat index? An index that combines air temp. and relative humidity to determine the human-perceived equivalent temp.
What is WBGT? Wet Bulb Globe Temp.
What does the WBGT do? Provides the athletic trainer with an objective means of determining necessary precautions for practice and competition in hot weather.
What is the formula for determinging the WBGT? 0.3 x Dry Bulb Temp + 0.7 x Wet Bulb Temp
What percentage of body weight loss can be a health threat? 3-5%
What is heat rash? A condition associated with red raised rash combined with prickling when sweating
How do you get heat rash? Continuous wet unevaporated sweat on the skin.
How do you prevent heat rash? Continuous toweling the body.
What is heat syncope? Heat collapse associated with rapid fatigue and overexposure to heat for long periods of time.
How is heat syncope caused on the body level? Peripheral vasodilation , or pooling of blood in the extremities.
How do we treat heat syncope? Place athlete in cool environment, consume fluids, and lay them down.
What are heat cramps? Painful muscle spasms
Why do heat cramps occur? due to excessive water loss and electrolyte imbalance.
What pop due heat cramps usually plague? Those who are in good shape but just haven't gotten acclimated to the heat.
How do you treat heat cramps? Treat with fluid ingestion, light stretching, and ice massage.
What is exertional heat exhaustion? A moderate heat illness where an athlete becomes dehydrated to the point that he can not sustain adequate cardiac output.
How does exertional heat exhaustion happen? It is due to inadequate fluid replacement.
What are the ten signs and symptoms for exertional heat exhaustion? 1. profuse sweating 2. pale skin 3. mild elevated temp. 4. dizziness 5. nausea 6. vomiting 7. diarrhea 8. hyperventilation 9. persistent muscle cramps 10. loss of coordination
What will the core temp be with exertional heat exhaustion? Great than 104 degrees
How do we treat Exertional heat exhaustion? Fluid ingestion, IV fluid if warranted, place in cool environment, remove excess clothing.
Always continue doing what when treating Exertional heat exhaustion? Monitor vital signs
What is Exertional Heat Stroke? A sever life threatening heat illness and is a breakdown of the thermoregulatory mechanism.
What nine things is Exertional Heat Stoke characterized by(symptoms)? 1. Sudden onset 2. sudden collapse 3. loss of conciousness 4. CNS Dysfunction 5. flushed hot skin 6. minimal sweating 7. shallow breathing 8. strong rapid pulse 9. Core temp of 104 degrees or higher
What five thing must be done to treat Exertional Heat Stroke? 1. strip clothing 2. sponge with cool water 3. do not immerse in water 4. transport to hospital immediately 5. cool first, transport second
What is the return to play criteria or guidelines for Exertional heat stroke? No exercise for one week, gradual return to practice, must be asymptomatic and cleared by physician.
What is malignant hyperthermia? A rare genetically inherited muscle disorder that causes hypersensitivity to anesthesia and extreme exercise in hot environments.
What are the signs and symptoms of malignent hyperthermia? complaints of muscle pain after exercise and temp. will remain elevated 10 to fifteen min. after exercise.
Return to play considerations for Malignent hyperthermia? The athlete should be disq. from all activities in hot, humid environments?
What is acute exertional rhabdomyolosis? It is a syndrome where there is sudden catabolic destruction and degeneration of skeletal muscle.
How does acute exertional rhabdomyolosis occur? Occurs during intense exercise in heat and humidity.
What are the signs and symptoms of acute exertional rhabdomyolosis? Gradual muscle weakness, swelling , pain, dark urine, renal dysfunction. severe reaction: sudden collapse, renal failure, and death
Who is acute exertional rhabdomyolosis associated with? People with sickle cell trait.
What is Exertional hyponatremia? It is a fluid/electrolyte disorder resulting in abnormally low concentration of sodium in blood.
What causes Exertional hyponatremia? Ingestion of to much fluid before, during and after exercise.
What are the signs and symptoms of Exertional hyponatremia? Progressively worsening headache, nausea, vomiting, swelling of hands and feet, lethargy, apathy and agitation, low blood sodium
Treatment of Exertional hyponatremia? If levels cant be determined must transport to hospital for IV.
What is trauma? a physical injury or wound that is produced by and external or internal force.
What is tension? Force that pulls or stretches tissue.
what is stretching? A pull beyond yield point resulting in damage.
what is compression? A force that results in tissue crush.
what is shearing? A force that moves across the parallel organization of tissue.
what is bending? A force on a horizontal beam that places stress within the structure.
what is a load? Outside force or forces acting on tissues.
what is stress? Resistance to a load.
what is strain? Deformation of a tissue under loading.
What is yield point? Elastic limit of tissue.
What is torsion? Loads caused by twisting in opposite directions from opposite ends.
What are the four types of tissue that can be injured in the body. 1. Bone 2. Muscle/tendon 3. ligaments 4. Skin
What types of injuries can happen to the skin? 1. abrasion 2. contusion 3. blister 4. laceration 5. avulsion 6. incision 7. puncture wound
What are the five mechanisms of injury associated with skin? 1. rubbing/friction 2. compression/contusion 3. tearing 4. ripping 5. penetration
What are the two layers of the skin? 1. epidermis 2. dermis
What are the three types of muscle in the body? 1. cardiac 2. smooth 3. striated
What are the two types of muscle injuries? Acute and chronic
What is a muscle strain? A stretch, tear or rip to the muscle or adjacent tissue.
How do we grade muscle strains? Grade 1 2 3
What is a grade 1 muscle strain? Some fibers have been stretched or actually torn resulting in tenderness and pain in AROM. Full range of motion is present
What is a grade 2 muscle strain? A number of fibers have been torn and active contraction is painful and a palpable depression or divot is present. Swelling and discoloration can be present.
What is a grade 3 muscle strain? Complete rupture of muscle or musculotendinous junction. Significant loss of ROM and a great deal of pain.
Return to play from grade 3 muscle strain? 6 to 8 weeks
What are the types of muscle injuries? Muscle strain(grade1,2,3), muscle cramps, muscle guarding, muscle spasms, muscle soreness
What are the types of muscle soreness? Acute onset muscle soreness and delayed onset muscle soreness.
What are muscle tendon's made up of? Wavy parallel collagenous fibers organized in bundles and attach muscles to bone.
What is the breaking point of a tendon and where does it usually occur? Usually 6-8% of increased length and generally tears occur in the muscle and not the tendon.
what is tendinitis? Gradual onset with diffuse tenderness due to repeated microtrauma and degenerative changes in a muscle tendon.
what are the signs and symptoms of tendinitis? swelling and pain
what is tenosynovitis? Inflamation of the synovial sheath
What are the signs and symptoms of tenosynovitis? swelling and crepitus
What is a myofascial trigger point? a hypersensitive nodule within a tight band of muscle or fascia.
what are the two classifications of myofascial trigger points? latent and active
what are the characteristics of an active trigger point? pain at rest, pressure = pain, tender with palpation and referred pain
what is a contusion? a sudden blow to the body that is deep or superficial that usually results in a hematoma around the surrounding tissue.
what is atrophy? a wasting away of muscle due to immobilization, inactivity, or loss of nerve function
what is a ligament sprain? traumatic joint twist that causes stretching or tearing of connective tissue.
how do we grade ligament sprains? grade 1 2 3
characteristics of a grade 1 ligaments sprain? some pain, minimal loss of function, no abnormal motion, mild pt
characteristics of a grade 2 ligament sprain? pain, some loss of function, swelling, some instability (tearing and separation of some fibers)
characteristics of a grade 3 ligament sprain? extreme pain, complete loss of function, severe instability, swelling
what is the common action that happens in dislocations and subluxations? it is a separation of bony articulating surfaces.
what is a subluxation? partial dislocation where the bones pop out and come back together in alignment.
what is a dislocation? when a bone in a joint is forced out of alignment and must be manually or surgically reduced.
what is the acute care for a dislocation? referral to a physician to rule out a fracture
What is osteoarthritis? the wearing away of the hyaline cartilage as a result of normal use. (commonly due to repeated trauma) ie. running
What is bursitis? sudden irratation of the fluid filled sacs in the body that provide lubrication.
how do you get chronic bursitis? overuse and external compression
signs and symptoms of bursitis? swelling, pain, some loss of function
what is capsulitis?
what is synovitis?
What are the three structures of the bones? 1. diaphysis 2. Epiphysis 3. periosteum
What is the diaphysis? The shaft of the bone and hollow
what is the epiphysis? the ends of the bones and usually has hyaline cartilage covering it. Is the area for muscle attachment.
What is the periosteum? the dense white fiberous sheath that covers the bone and contains blood vessels and osteoblasts.
What are the eight types of common fractures? 1. Greenstick 2. comminuted 3. linear 4. transverse 5. oblique 6. spiral 7. impacted 8. depressed
what are the four types of non common fractures? 1. avulsion 2. blowout 3. serrated 4. contrecoup
What is a stress fracture? overuse injury where repetitive stress causes a crack in the bone.
Created by: shsuman152
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