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WJEC - CG1 - 1.1

Hardware & Communication

How many Registers are there in a CPU Six
Which register contains the most recent item obtained from memory? Memory Data Register
Which register contains the address of the next item to be processed Memory Address Register
Which register contains the instructions for the current operation Instruction Register
Which register contains the intermediate results of an operation/calculation The Accumulator
Which register controls CPU behaviour Sequence Control Register
Which Register indicates where a program is in its sequence Program Counter
How Many Buses are there in the CPU Three busses
Which Bus carries data to and from the CPU The Data Bus
Which bus Contains information on where the data is going and where it has been, (works with the bus that carries data) The Address bus
Which bus sends and receives signals from all the external computer components that contains information that controls the order that processes are carried out in The Control Bus
Which Component in the CPU performs Calculations The Arithmetic Logic Unit - ALU
What kind of calculations does the alu perform - Multiplication - Division - Subtraction - Addition - Logic Tests
Which component in the CPU, issues signals to other parts of the CPU The Control Unit
How many states can Binary Data exist in Two, a binary "bit" can only be a 1 or a 0 (sometimes referred to as a light switch being on or off)
How many bits in the binary digit 01011010 Eight, there are eight states in that digit, this is called a "byte"
How many bytes in a kilobyte (Kb) 1024
How many kilobytes in a megabyte (Mb) 1024
How many megabytes in a gigabyte (Gb) 1024
How many gigabytes in a terabyte (Tb) 1024
What are the two types of storage - Primary - Secondary
What are the three types of memory - Ram - Rom - Cache
Why is RAM Considered Volatile Unlike a flash drive or a hard drive, when the power is switched off, all the data stored in the ram is lost.
R.A.M. stands for what and why - Random Access Memory - Because any free location on the ram can be accessed
R.O.M. stands for what and why - Read Only Memory - The data on a ROM chip is only readable and executable not editable.
ROM is not considered Volatile because the data is stored permanently on the chip, and isn't lost on system restart
ROM is often found where? - Oven timers - Alarms - Cameras - Cars Basically anywhere that a basic operating system is used to run an appliance
ROM is also located on the mother board and is used when During start up to locate all the hardware and run basic tests on boot, or when accessing the bios (Basic Input Output System)
Is cache memory faster then Ram Yes, its is built closer to the CPU or inside it and acts as an intermediate store of data during processing
Difference between RAM Cache and Disk Cache - Ram cache is used to store repeated data when processing data - Disk Cache is used to store data to speed up access speed if its needed again
One Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage - Primary is much faster then secondary - Secondary is much larger in capacity - Secondary is not directly accessible by the CPU
Common forms of Secondary Storage/Backing storage - Magnetic Tape - Hard Disk Drives - SSD's - Optical Disks (CD, DVD, Blu-Ray) - Flash Drives (memory sticks)
Advantages and Disadvantages - Magnetic Tape - Cheap - Large Capacities - Slow read/write/access speeds
Advantages and Disadvantages - HDD - Relatively Cheap - Large Capacities - Relatively fast read/write/access speeds - Durable casing - Physical components can deteriorate
Advantages and Disadvantages - SSD - Very Fast - Very Durable - Expensive
Advantages and Disadvantages - Optical Disks - Cheap - Portable - Can be fragile - Require a secondary component to read (reader) - Range in capacity
Advantages and Disadvantages - Flash Storage - Cheap - Portable - Some can have very large capacities (expensive though) - Generally durable
*Recap* Order these components by speed: - CPU Register - Magnetic tape - Cache - Hard Disk Drive - Ram - SSD - Optical Disk - Time taken to spend your last paycheck - Paycheck - CPU Registers - Cache - RAM - SSD - Hard Disk Drive - Optical Disk - Magnetic Tape
Digital data is similar to binary because it can only have distinct values, 1 or 0 - Light is on or off - Day or night - Red or Blue
Analogue data is dissimilar to binary because It can have a range of values - Temperature - Age - Height
Digital Signals are much smaller because The data is either a 1 or a 0, this means the data is much more efficient, but not as rich as analogue data
Analouge Signals are much richer because The data has more scope and can take a range of values not just 2, this means it is much larger however and can take up more bandwidth
What does an input device do Introduce data to a computer
What does an output device do Allows data to be expressed by a computer, normally in a Human intelligible form (understandable by humans)
Name Some peripherals that act as input devices - Mouse - Keyboard - Touch screen - Controller - Barcode reader - Microphone
Name Some peripherals that act as Output devices - Monitor - Speakers - Printer
Some Devices act as both I/O devices, name one - iPhone, has input touch screen capabilities whilst outputting visual and auditory information. - Game Pad, can input controls to a game whilst getting vibration feedback
Name some physical interfaces, an example being a 3.5mm in (headphone jack) - USB 2/3 input - Sata port - VGA/DVI/HDMI I/O - LAN - Optical I/O - SD I/O
The process where two devices check if they are ready to communicate with each other, is called Handshaking, this process ensures both devices interface software and hardware is compatible. Like the name suggests, this is an initial check.
What is a network? A number of computers or peripherals connected together.
LAN stands for what and why Local Area Network - Connected via cables usually on the same site or building
WAN stands for what and why Wide Area Network - Connected via telephone wires, satellite links spanning over towns or cities.
Why are network standards important Without them computer networks may not work properly as computers may not communicate properly
Advantages of Computer networks - Printers can be shared - Software can be shared - Data can be shared - Emailing and messaging can be internal to the network
Disadvantages of Computer networks - Viruses can spread throughout these networks - hackers can access different computers on the network from a single terminal - A fault in the network and everyone cannot access the internet - Networks may be slow - Complex installation
What are three types of network configuations - Bus network - Star network - Ring network
Describe a Bus Network A single network cable or "Backbone", links all the computers together. Data is sent out and each computer will check if the data is for itself if not it ignores it.
Describe a Star Network A file server will link to each computer individually and will send the data to appropriate computers, if data is send between computers it passes through the central node.
Describe a Ring Network The backbone loops round all the computers in the network and back to the central node. The data is sent round in one direction and uses a token system so identify which node the data is for.
Advantages & Disadvantages - Bus Network - Cheap - Minimal Cabling - Easy to add or remove cables - Failure impacts the entire network - Slow - poor security
Advantages & Disadvantages - Star Network - Failure is isolated to a single node - Easy to troubleshoot - Fast transfer speed - Easy to add/remove nodes - Best Security - Expensive and complex to install
Advantages & Disadvantages - Ring Network - Faster transfer speed to bus - No message collisions due to token system - Fault will effect the whole system - poor security as data passes through each node
A Company with a high budget want a fast and secure network, which do you recommend and why Star, its expensive but fast and very secure
What is a protocol A set of rules for transmitting data across a network
What is data encapsulation If a piece of data has many protocols attached to it, they are seated within themselves: [http[payload]CHKSUM] > [TCP[http[payload]CHKSUM]CHKSUM]
Name Five Protocols - IP - Internet Protocol - HTTP - Hyper Text Transfer Protocol - FTP - File Transfer Protocol - SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol - VOIP - Voice Over Internet Protocol (skype uses this)
Advantages & Disadvantages - Wireless network - No cabling - Computers can be placed anywhere within the range of the router - Data can be slower - Limited Range - Security may be a concern as the data can be picked up by anyone within range
Created by: delldom