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# Similar Science

Question | Answer |
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Friedrich Kekule (KECK-you-lee) determined the structure of this compound | benzene |

a system of delocalized electrons which gives it a property known as aromaticity | benzene |

hydrocarbon with chemical formula C6H6 | benzene |

It is acylated in the most basic form of the Friedel-Crafts acylation. | benzene |

When one of its hydrogen atoms is replaced by a functional group, it forms a derivative such as phenol or toluene | benzene |

t is the smallest cyclic compound to follow the 4n+2 rule named for Huckel | benzene |

another derivative of it is used with chloroform in DNA extraction | benzene |

linking two molecules of this substance forms biphenyl. | benzene |

reacted with sodium and an alcohol in the Birch reduction | benzene |

Substitution with one OH group and one COOH group leads to salicylic acid | benzene |

This functional group contains a carbon and a hydrogen both single bonded to an oxygen. | alcohol |

A hepatic form of this oxidoreductase can lead to blindness by catalyzing the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde. For ten points, name this enzyme which in yeast can generating NAD+ and its namesake product during fermentation. | ADH |

This functionality reacts with triphenylphosphine and DEAD to give esters | alcohol |

they may be formed without rearrangement from alkenes in a reaction using a boron reagent named for Brown | alcohol |

High intake of this molecule can cause thiamin absorption problems leading to Korsakoff's Syndrome, while an enzyme important to this compound's metabolism is acetaldehyde dehydrogenase | ethanol |

Since this compound forms an azeotrope in a nineteen to one ratio with water, a dehydrating agent must be used to produce the one hundred percent, or "absolute", form of this compound | ethanol |

these compounds consisting of a hydroxyl bonded to a carbon of an alkyl | alcohol |

A chemical from this functional group is combined with a carboxylic acid in Fischer esterification. While secondary ones can be oxidized to make ketones, primary ones are oxidized to create aldehydes or carboxylic acids | alcohol |

they are given the formula R-OH | alcohol |

the absolute variety of this substance can be obtained by using a small quantity of (*) benzene. | ethanol |

the Crown varieties are used as solvents for Grignard reagents. | ethers |

identify this functional group, where two carbon molecules are single bonded to an oxygen molecule | ethers |

cyclic ones are formed by reacting an alkene with a peroxy-acid and are known as epoxides | ethers |

eaction between an alkoxide and an alkyl halide, known as the Williamson synthesis | ethers |

Functional groups equivalent to small cyclic ones may be formed from alkenes in a reaction named for Sharpless | ethers |

Zeisel | ethers |

two R groups bonded to an oxygen atom | ethers |

Jain and Pillai found that when phenol is added to that reacting system, the rate of alkene production is greatly increased, while the rate of production of these is reduced drastically. | ethers |

two alkyl groups bonded to an oxygen atom | ethers |

These compounds are reacted with a base in saponification | esters |

organic compounds known for their pleasant smells | esters |

the Fries rearrangement | esters |

Involved in reactions named for Dieckmann and Fischer | esters |

Markovnikov's rule | alkenes |

Examples of them include ethylene and butene | alkenes |

having at least one carbon-carbon double bond | alkenes |

cis and trans | alkenes |

Wittig reaction | alkenes |

hydrocarbons whose carbons are all singly bonded to each other, which includes methane | alkanes |

It can be used to predict the behavior of a concentration cell. | Nernst Equation |

name this equation that predicts the voltage of an electrochemical cell. | Nernst Equation |

The Butler-Volmer equation can be reduced to this | Nernst Equation |

it is a special case of the Goldman equation for one ion. | Nernst Equation |

the ideal gas constant is multiplied by temperature and divided by the moles of electrons and the Faraday constant, and that ratio is multiplied by the natural log of Q | Nernst Equation |

One version of it uses the electron charge and Boltzmann's constant to account for molecular quantities. | Nernst Equation |

A quantity not accounted for in this fundamental equation but considered in the Tafel equation is overpotential | Nernst Equation |

this equation relates Gibbs free energy to the electromotive force in a Galvanic cell | Nernst Equation |

this law becomes invalid at high ionic concentrations | Nernst Equation |

derived from entropy and Gibbs free energy | Nernst Equation |

The derivative of this quantity with respect to temperature is the negative of the entropy | Gibb's Free Energy |

A reaction will occur spontaneously if the change in this quantity is negative | Gibb's Free Energy |

Enthalpy minus temperature times entropy is equal to this quantity. | Gibb's Free Energy |

measure of the amount of energy in a system available for useful work | Gibb's Free Energy |

This is equal to the sum over all the components of a systems of the product of moles and chemical potential. | Gibb's Free Energy |

Legendre transform of internal energy | Gibb's Free Energy |

Surface tension can be defined as this quantity per unit area | Gibb's Free Energy |

symbolized delta-G | Gibb's Free Energy |

It is applicable to isothermal and isobaric processes, unlike its counterpart. | Gibb's Free Energy |

The change in this quantity when a substance changes temperature is found by using Kirchoff's law | enthalpy |

The net change in this quantity for a reaction can be calculated using Hess's Law. | enthalpy |

At constant pressure, a reaction is exothermic when the change in this quantity is negative | enthalpy |

name this "heat content" of a thermodynamic system, symbolized capital H | enthalpy |

The van't Hoff equation states that the derivative of the natural log of the equilibrium constant with respect to inverse temperature is equal to negative change in this quantity divided by the ideal gas constant. | enthalpy |

For transformations occurring at constant pressure, it is equal to the change in the internal energy of the system | enthalpy |

Joule-Thomson effect | enthalpy |

Enthalpy, entropy, heat capacity, and the coefficient of this quantity are the subjects of the four Lee-Kesler tables. | fugacity |

Introduced by Gilbert Lewis, for 10 points, name this measure of adjusted pressure that gives a substance's tendency to escape a given phase | fugacity |

The chemical potential may be given as Boltzmann's constant times temperature times the natural log of this quantity. | fugacity |

The Gibbs free energy change for a reaction is the enthalpy change minus temperature times the change in this quantity, which is given in units of Joules per Kelvin | entropy |

formula states that this quantity equals k times natural log of omega, a formula inscribed on Ludwig (*) Boltzmann's ("BOLTS"-mons) tombstone. | entropy |

The Sackur-Tetrode equation describes this quantity for a monatomic ideal gas. | entropy |

Symbolized by the letter S | entropy |

For an ideal gas, this property approaches negative infinity as temperature approaches absolute zero | entropy |

For de Sitter space it is finite, as shown by Gibbons and Hawking | entropy |

For black holes, this quantity is proportional to the event horizon's surface area. | entropy |

It remains unchanged in the Carnot cycle | entropy |

Bernoulli schemes which have equivalent values for this are isomorphic | entropy |

For another system this quantity is proportional to one over four times the Planck length squared, multiplied by the area of the event horizon of a black hole. | entropy |

name this individual who developed a law relating blackbody radiation to temperature | Planck |

namesake constant, symbolized h, relates the energy of a photon to its frequency. | Planck's Constant |

sought to overcome the deficiencies of the Rayleigh-Jeans law | Planck |

It was originally proposed in reference to black-body radiation, where E, the quantized energy of the photons of radiation, equals this quantity times nu, the frequency | Planck's Constant |

He discovered a law that improves on Wien's approximation for low frequencies | Planck |

Known for a namesake constant equal to 2 pi times h-bar | Planck |

The Heisenberg uncertainty principle is typically written as the change in position times the change in momentum is greater than or equal to (*) this value | Planck's Constant |

His namesake unit system, containing a length unit approximately equal to one point six one six times ten to the negative thirty-five meters, normalizes the gravitational constant, Boltzmann's constant, and the speed of light to 1 | Planck |

name this effect from physics, whose classical analog describes the perpendicular voltage generated by applying an electric current perpendicular to a magnetic field. | Hall effect |

form of this effect was discovered by Tsui and Stormer | Hall effect |

an der Pauw method | Hall effect |

Klaus von Klitzing discovered integral changes in resistance in a MOSFET, which is the "quantum" form of this | Hall effect |

electrical conductance is found to be any integer v times the elementary charge squared over Planck's constant | Hall effect |

Caused by a Lorentz force creating an unequal distribution of charge density | Hall effect |

the Corbino effect | Hall effect |

This man's paradox asks why no extraterrestrial civilizations have been seen despite the universe being large and old enough to produce them. | Fermi |

this man's "golden rule. | Fermi |

With Dirac, he names a set of statistics for identical particles that obey the Pauli Exclusion Principle | Fermi |

This man named the neutrino | Fermi |

This quantity is multiplied by the voltage gain to produce the "Miller" type of this quantity | capacitance |

Its inverse is elastance | capacitance |

It is additive in parallel circuits. | capacitance |

Current is equal to this quantity times the time derivative of (*) voltage. | capacitance |

The quantum version of this quantity is equal to electron charge squared times the density of states | capacitance |

The alternating current analogue of this quantity depends on phase and is represented by a capital Z | resistance |

The reciprocal of this quantity is measured in siemens and known as conductance | resistance |

This quantity across a conductor equals voltage divided by current. | resistance |

The quantum hall effect gives rise to the von Klitzing standard for this quantity, which is negligible in materials exhibiting ballistic transport. | resistance |

n high-frequency AC circuits, this quantity is increased via the skin effect. | resistance |

Wheatstone [*] bridge | resistance |

the Kondo effect | resistance |

rotational analogue of mass | moment of inertia |

can also be determined via the parallel axis theorem | moment of inertia |

two-fifths of the product of mass and radius squared will yield it for a sphere | moment of inertia |

It involves the modification of ribulose bisphosphate by the enzyme rubisco | Calvin cycle |

The reduction of thioredoxin by ferrodoxin | Calvin cycle |

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate molecules | Calvin cycle |

it produces one molecule of ATP and a host of molecules used in the electron transport chain | Kreb's Cycle |

it consumes pyruvic acid without building up lactic acid | Kreb's Cycle |

reacts with acetyl-CoA | Kreb's Cycle |

following glycolysis and preceding the electron transport chain | Kreb's Cycle |

In it, succinate is converted to fumarate prior to the formation of cytochrome c | Electron Transport Chain |

ultimately involves the movement of four protons across the inner membrane of the mitochondria, thereby creating a proton gradient capable of powering the synthesis of ATP | Electron Transport Chain |

metabolic pathway that produces pyruvate from glucose | Glycolysis |

The sixth step of this pathway transfers a phosphate group to G3P and attaches a hydrogen to NAD+ | Glycolysis |

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jaredlovering