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QuestionAnswer
Friedrich Kekule (KECK-you-lee) determined the structure of this compound benzene
a system of delocalized electrons which gives it a property known as aromaticity benzene
hydrocarbon with chemical formula C6H6 benzene
It is acylated in the most basic form of the Friedel-Crafts acylation. benzene
When one of its hydrogen atoms is replaced by a functional group, it forms a derivative such as phenol or toluene benzene
t is the smallest cyclic compound to follow the 4n+2 rule named for Huckel benzene
another derivative of it is used with chloroform in DNA extraction benzene
linking two molecules of this substance forms biphenyl. benzene
reacted with sodium and an alcohol in the Birch reduction benzene
Substitution with one OH group and one COOH group leads to salicylic acid benzene
This functional group contains a carbon and a hydrogen both single bonded to an oxygen. alcohol
A hepatic form of this oxidoreductase can lead to blindness by catalyzing the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde. For ten points, name this enzyme which in yeast can generating NAD+ and its namesake product during fermentation. ADH
This functionality reacts with triphenylphosphine and DEAD to give esters alcohol
they may be formed without rearrangement from alkenes in a reaction using a boron reagent named for Brown alcohol
High intake of this molecule can cause thiamin absorption problems leading to Korsakoff's Syndrome, while an enzyme important to this compound's metabolism is acetaldehyde dehydrogenase ethanol
Since this compound forms an azeotrope in a nineteen to one ratio with water, a dehydrating agent must be used to produce the one hundred percent, or "absolute", form of this compound ethanol
these compounds consisting of a hydroxyl bonded to a carbon of an alkyl alcohol
A chemical from this functional group is combined with a carboxylic acid in Fischer esterification. While secondary ones can be oxidized to make ketones, primary ones are oxidized to create aldehydes or carboxylic acids alcohol
they are given the formula R-OH alcohol
the absolute variety of this substance can be obtained by using a small quantity of (*) benzene. ethanol
the Crown varieties are used as solvents for Grignard reagents. ethers
identify this functional group, where two carbon molecules are single bonded to an oxygen molecule ethers
cyclic ones are formed by reacting an alkene with a peroxy-acid and are known as epoxides ethers
eaction between an alkoxide and an alkyl halide, known as the Williamson synthesis ethers
Functional groups equivalent to small cyclic ones may be formed from alkenes in a reaction named for Sharpless ethers
Zeisel ethers
two R groups bonded to an oxygen atom ethers
Jain and Pillai found that when phenol is added to that reacting system, the rate of alkene production is greatly increased, while the rate of production of these is reduced drastically. ethers
two alkyl groups bonded to an oxygen atom ethers
These compounds are reacted with a base in saponification esters
organic compounds known for their pleasant smells esters
the Fries rearrangement esters
Involved in reactions named for Dieckmann and Fischer esters
Markovnikov's rule alkenes
Examples of them include ethylene and butene alkenes
having at least one carbon-carbon double bond alkenes
cis and trans alkenes
Wittig reaction alkenes
hydrocarbons whose carbons are all singly bonded to each other, which includes methane alkanes
It can be used to predict the behavior of a concentration cell. Nernst Equation
name this equation that predicts the voltage of an electrochemical cell. Nernst Equation
The Butler-Volmer equation can be reduced to this Nernst Equation
it is a special case of the Goldman equation for one ion. Nernst Equation
the ideal gas constant is multiplied by temperature and divided by the moles of electrons and the Faraday constant, and that ratio is multiplied by the natural log of Q Nernst Equation
One version of it uses the electron charge and Boltzmann's constant to account for molecular quantities. Nernst Equation
A quantity not accounted for in this fundamental equation but considered in the Tafel equation is overpotential Nernst Equation
this equation relates Gibbs free energy to the electromotive force in a Galvanic cell Nernst Equation
this law becomes invalid at high ionic concentrations Nernst Equation
derived from entropy and Gibbs free energy Nernst Equation
The derivative of this quantity with respect to temperature is the negative of the entropy Gibb's Free Energy
A reaction will occur spontaneously if the change in this quantity is negative Gibb's Free Energy
Enthalpy minus temperature times entropy is equal to this quantity. Gibb's Free Energy
measure of the amount of energy in a system available for useful work Gibb's Free Energy
This is equal to the sum over all the components of a systems of the product of moles and chemical potential. Gibb's Free Energy
Legendre transform of internal energy Gibb's Free Energy
Surface tension can be defined as this quantity per unit area Gibb's Free Energy
symbolized delta-G Gibb's Free Energy
It is applicable to isothermal and isobaric processes, unlike its counterpart. Gibb's Free Energy
The change in this quantity when a substance changes temperature is found by using Kirchoff's law enthalpy
The net change in this quantity for a reaction can be calculated using Hess's Law. enthalpy
At constant pressure, a reaction is exothermic when the change in this quantity is negative enthalpy
name this "heat content" of a thermodynamic system, symbolized capital H enthalpy
The van't Hoff equation states that the derivative of the natural log of the equilibrium constant with respect to inverse temperature is equal to negative change in this quantity divided by the ideal gas constant. enthalpy
For transformations occurring at constant pressure, it is equal to the change in the internal energy of the system enthalpy
Joule-Thomson effect enthalpy
Enthalpy, entropy, heat capacity, and the coefficient of this quantity are the subjects of the four Lee-Kesler tables. fugacity
Introduced by Gilbert Lewis, for 10 points, name this measure of adjusted pressure that gives a substance's tendency to escape a given phase fugacity
The chemical potential may be given as Boltzmann's constant times temperature times the natural log of this quantity. fugacity
The Gibbs free energy change for a reaction is the enthalpy change minus temperature times the change in this quantity, which is given in units of Joules per Kelvin entropy
formula states that this quantity equals k times natural log of omega, a formula inscribed on Ludwig (*) Boltzmann's ("BOLTS"-mons) tombstone. entropy
The Sackur-Tetrode equation describes this quantity for a monatomic ideal gas. entropy
Symbolized by the letter S entropy
For an ideal gas, this property approaches negative infinity as temperature approaches absolute zero entropy
For de Sitter space it is finite, as shown by Gibbons and Hawking entropy
For black holes, this quantity is proportional to the event horizon's surface area. entropy
It remains unchanged in the Carnot cycle entropy
Bernoulli schemes which have equivalent values for this are isomorphic entropy
For another system this quantity is proportional to one over four times the Planck length squared, multiplied by the area of the event horizon of a black hole. entropy
name this individual who developed a law relating blackbody radiation to temperature Planck
namesake constant, symbolized h, relates the energy of a photon to its frequency. Planck's Constant
sought to overcome the deficiencies of the Rayleigh-Jeans law Planck
It was originally proposed in reference to black-body radiation, where E, the quantized energy of the photons of radiation, equals this quantity times nu, the frequency Planck's Constant
He discovered a law that improves on Wien's approximation for low frequencies Planck
Known for a namesake constant equal to 2 pi times h-bar Planck
The Heisenberg uncertainty principle is typically written as the change in position times the change in momentum is greater than or equal to (*) this value Planck's Constant
His namesake unit system, containing a length unit approximately equal to one point six one six times ten to the negative thirty-five meters, normalizes the gravitational constant, Boltzmann's constant, and the speed of light to 1 Planck
name this effect from physics, whose classical analog describes the perpendicular voltage generated by applying an electric current perpendicular to a magnetic field. Hall effect
form of this effect was discovered by Tsui and Stormer Hall effect
an der Pauw method Hall effect
Klaus von Klitzing discovered integral changes in resistance in a MOSFET, which is the "quantum" form of this Hall effect
electrical conductance is found to be any integer v times the elementary charge squared over Planck's constant Hall effect
Caused by a Lorentz force creating an unequal distribution of charge density Hall effect
the Corbino effect Hall effect
This man's paradox asks why no extraterrestrial civilizations have been seen despite the universe being large and old enough to produce them. Fermi
this man's "golden rule. Fermi
With Dirac, he names a set of statistics for identical particles that obey the Pauli Exclusion Principle Fermi
This man named the neutrino Fermi
This quantity is multiplied by the voltage gain to produce the "Miller" type of this quantity capacitance
Its inverse is elastance capacitance
It is additive in parallel circuits. capacitance
Current is equal to this quantity times the time derivative of (*) voltage. capacitance
The quantum version of this quantity is equal to electron charge squared times the density of states capacitance
The alternating current analogue of this quantity depends on phase and is represented by a capital Z resistance
The reciprocal of this quantity is measured in siemens and known as conductance resistance
This quantity across a conductor equals voltage divided by current. resistance
The quantum hall effect gives rise to the von Klitzing standard for this quantity, which is negligible in materials exhibiting ballistic transport. resistance
n high-frequency AC circuits, this quantity is increased via the skin effect. resistance
Wheatstone [*] bridge resistance
the Kondo effect resistance
rotational analogue of mass moment of inertia
can also be determined via the parallel axis theorem moment of inertia
two-fifths of the product of mass and radius squared will yield it for a sphere moment of inertia
It involves the modification of ribulose bisphosphate by the enzyme rubisco Calvin cycle
The reduction of thioredoxin by ferrodoxin Calvin cycle
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate molecules Calvin cycle
it produces one molecule of ATP and a host of molecules used in the electron transport chain Kreb's Cycle
it consumes pyruvic acid without building up lactic acid Kreb's Cycle
reacts with acetyl-CoA Kreb's Cycle
following glycolysis and preceding the electron transport chain Kreb's Cycle
In it, succinate is converted to fumarate prior to the formation of cytochrome c Electron Transport Chain
ultimately involves the movement of four protons across the inner membrane of the mitochondria, thereby creating a proton gradient capable of powering the synthesis of ATP Electron Transport Chain
metabolic pathway that produces pyruvate from glucose Glycolysis
The sixth step of this pathway transfers a phosphate group to G3P and attaches a hydrogen to NAD+ Glycolysis
Created by: jaredlovering