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Soft Tissue Patholog

Week 4

List the 5 cardinal signs of inflammation Heat (due to more blood flow in area after injury), redness, swelling (lots of fluid in injured area), pain (injury to nerve fibres) & loss of function
Without inflammation there is no...? Swelling
Effect 1 of Inflammation: Primary Injury, what is it caused by? Initial tissue disruption caused by: physical agents (force, burn), metabolic processes (schema & hypoxia), biological agents (bacteria, viruses) & chemical agents (acids & gases)
What is schema and hypoxia? Ischemia: lack of blood flow Hypoxia: lack of oxygen
Effect 2 of Inflammation: Ultrastructural changes 1. Breaking down & eventual disruption of the cellular membrane & its organelles. 2. The cells contents spill out of the extracellular space
Effect 3 of Inflammation: Chemical Mediation Ultrastructural changes trigger the release of chemical mediators (histamine, bradykinin & prostaglandin) which signal the rest of the body that cells have been damaged. This mobilises the body's resources to respond.
Effect 4 of Inflammation: Hemodynamic Changes Mobilize & transport defence components of the blood to the injury site. Secure their passage through vessel walls into the tissue.
Effect 5 of Inflammation: Metabolic Changes (8 steps) Injury= cell hypoxia = switches to anaerobic metabolism = not long lasting = cell membrane function slows down = accumulation of Na+ ions in cell = causes cell to swell & burst = cell eventually dies
Effect 6 of Inflammation: Permeability Changes Chemicals increase permeability of small blood vessels (histamine & bradilemen). Purpose of increased permeability is to let leucyotes move to the injury site
Effect 7 of Inflammation: Leucocyte (white blood cell) migration Concentration limited migration: increased at sites where the greatest tissue damage has occurred.
List the 2 types of leucocytes and give 3 characteristics of each Neutrophilis: smaller, faster, numerous. Temporary (7hrs) first line of defence does not reproduce. Macrophages: lives for months, can reproduce, cleaning up of cell debris
Effect 8 of Inflammation: ? Phagocytosis
What is the difference b/w primary & secondary injury? Primary injury occurs during initial result while secondary injury occurs gradually which is further tissue damage after primary injury.
List the 2 types of primary injury and what it is caused by 1. Macrotrauma (impact/contact injury) caused by large insult & results in immediate tissue disruption. 2. Microtrauma (overuse or cyclic loading or friction injury) caused by small/low grade stress that wears away the tissue over time.
List & explain the 2 types of secondary injury 1. Secondary enzymatic injury which involves the death of a cell from primary injury 2. Secondary metabolic injury which is prolong local ischemia caused by primary injury. It is the loss of balance b/w energy needed & energy available
Explain the difference b/w swelling and oedema In swelling colour changes due to lots of debris/red blood cells while in oedema there is no change in colour & it can cause swelling
Define Swelling Increase in tissue volume due to extra fluid & cellular material in tissue
Define oedema Accumulation of the fluid portion of blood in tissue. Occurs hours after injury.
How does oedema result in the process of fluid exchange? When more fluid moves out of the capillary and is then reabsorbed, oedema results.
Explain the concept of normal fluid exchange (3) Fresh fluid goes into the body, used blood back to the heart. It is an alternate pathway for larger molecules through the lymphatic vessels. Amount of fluid moves outside capillary = amt moves inside capillary
Created by: meunid