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Intro to physiology

Week 1

List the 6 Levels of organisation for living organisms chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organism (individual)
Chemical atoms combine to form molecules
Cellular molecules interact to make up cells
Tissue cells are grouped into tissue
Organ Tissue composes organs
Organ system organs function together to form organ systems
Organism Organ systems work together to make an individual
Name the 10 physiological systems of the human body Endocrine, Immune, respiratory, CV, nervous, reproductive, digestive, urinary, musculoskeletal, integumentary
Major organs and function of Integumentary Skin: protects from external environment (e.g uv rays, bacteria, viruses)
Major organs and function of Musculoskeletal skeletal systeM; provides support. muscular system: provides movement
Major organs and function of Nervous System Every coordination of our body happens through the nervous system. Coordination of body function through electrical signals & release of regulatory molecules. Brain + spin chord
Major organs and function of CV system - heart, blood, blood vessels. The transport of materials b/w all cells of the body
Major organs and function of Immune (lymphatic) system thymus, spleen, lymph nodes. Defence against foreign invaders
Major organs and function of Respiratory system lungs, airways. Exchange of c02 and 02 b/w the external & internal environments
Major organs and function of Digestive system stomach, intestine, liver, pancreas. Conversion of food into particles that can be transported into the body; elimination of some wastes.
Major organs and function of Urinary System Kidneys, bladder. Maintenance of water & solutes in the internal environment. Waste removal.
Major organs and function of Endocrine System Thyroid gland, adrenal gland. Coordination of body function through the synthesis & release of regulatory molecules (hormones)
Major organs and function of Reproductive system ovaries, uterus, testies. Perpetuation of the species
Teleological vs. mechanistic approaches Teleological: function explains "why". Mechanistic: Process of mechanism explains "how"
Theme 1 in physiology Structure function relationships: molecular interactions (ability of imdv molecules to bind with other) compartmentation, the division of space into specific compartments. allows cell/tissue/organ to specialise & isolate functions
Theme 2 in physiology Living organisms need energy: growth, reproduction, movement & homeostasis are the processes that take place in organisms that require the continuous input of energy. ATP is the source of energy for any cells in the human body.
Theme 3 in physiology Info flow coordinates body functions: vertical flow-> the transfer of info stored in DINA from generation 2 generation. Horizontal: the flow of info within the body of a single organism
Theme 4 in physiology Homeostasis maintains internal stability: bodys maintenance of a stable internal environment. environmental balance b/w external & internal environment e.g sweating maintains body temp
Organism in Homeostasis: External Change --> internal change results in loss of homeostasis--> organism attempts to compensate, compensation fails-- illness/disease/death
Organism in Homeostasis: Internal Change --> internal change results in loss of homeostasis, organism attempts to compesante, compensation succeeds, wellness + homeostasis reestablished
Mass Balance in the Body Homeostasis depends on mass balance. To maintain constant level OUTPUT = INPUT.
Four areas of mass balance INTAKE: material enters body by various routes (intestine, lungs, skin etc). METABOLIC PRODUCTION: material produced through metabolism. EXCRETION: material leaves body by excretion (kidney, liver, lungs skin) METABOLISM: material leaves body by metabolis
Control Systems & Homeostasis All control systems have 3 components. Input signal--> 1. integrating centre--> 2. output signal--> 3. response. Regulated variables are kept within normal range by control mechanisms.
Local control vs. Reflex control Local: restricted to tissue/cell involved. cells in the vicinity of change initiate response. Response is restricted to region of change. Reflex: long distance pathway widespread throughout the body. Cells at a distant site control the response.
7 Steps of a Negative Feedback loop: Reflex Steps Stimulus, Sensor, Input signal, Integrating center, output signal, target, response
Negative feedback loop vs. positive -ve: keep environment steady. +ve: reinforce stimulus (outside factor required to shut off feedback cycle)
Created by: meunid



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