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DNA & Protein Unit

DNA & Protein Unit Vocabulary Words

TermDefinition
DNA - deoxyribonucleic acid Carrier of genetic information In nearly all living organisms Makes up chromosomes
Protein Large molecules made of one or more long chains of amino acids Found throughout cell but especially with muscle, hair, collage, antibodies. Makes up enzymes that allow for reactions to occur in the cell
mRNA Messenger carrying instructions from DNA
tRNA Carrying amino acids
rRNA Catalyze creation of proteins in the ribosome
Nucleotide basic unit of DNA or RNA. Includes: sugar, phosphate group and a base
Base Pair complementary nucleotides held together by hydrogen bonds (A=T & G≡C)
Codon set of three nucleotides coding for a single amino acid
Hydrogen Bond a weak bond between a hydrogen atom of one molecule and nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine atom of another molecule
Replication DNA is copied into a new DNA strand
Transcription DNA is copied into mRNA
Translation ribosomes translate mRNA into chains of amino acids (proteins)
Enzyme protein that catalyzes reactions
Restriction Enzyme enzymes that cut DNA at a specific sequence called a recognition site
DNA polymerase enzyme for DNA replication links a new nucleotide to the growing new DNA strand
In vitro experiment outside of an organism
In vivo experiment with in a living organism
Recombinant DNA genetically engineered DNA that has DNA from different organisms
Plasmid small circular DNA capable of independent replication
Aliquot to divide a quantity of material into smaller equal parts
Electrophoresis movement and separation of molecules in an electric field
Ligase enzyme that repairs phosphate backbone of DNA
Agarose gel used to separate nucleic acids by electrophoresis
Buffer a solution that resists changes in pH when acid or alkali is added to it
Transformation uptake of DNA from the outside environment (usually in bacteria)
Conjugation bacteria exchange DNA between each other using a pili bridge
Transduction DNA is transferred between bacteria using a virus
Origin of Replication sequence where DNA replication is to start
Gene a distinct sequence of nucleotides that to determine protein or nucleic acid molecule
Promoter region of DNA near a gene that control its transcription
Multiple Cloning Site Short DNA sequence on a plasmid that has multiple recognition sites for restriction enzymes
Operon a cluster of genes under the control of a single promoter
Electroporation using an electric field the ability of DNA to pass through cell membrane is increased
Transformation Efficiency measurement of the number of successful transformation per µg of DNA used
Competent Cells cells that have the ability to take up DNA from their environment
Transfection introduction of nucleic acids into cells on purpose (usually eukaryotic cells)
Miniprep method of extracting and purifying plasmid DNA from bacterial cells
Supernatant liquid portion on top after centrifugation
Polymerase Chain Reaction technique that uses multiple cycles with changes in temperature to copy specific DNA sequences
PCR Requirements template DNA dNTPs PCR buffer MgCl2 water forward and reverse primers DNA polymerase
Genomic DNA DNA required to make a new cell or organism
Complementary DNA single stranded DNA created from a template (usually RNA)
Amplicon target DNA amplified by PCR
dNTPs building block in PCR Composed of a base, a sugar and 3 phosphates N = generic abbreviation for A, T, G, or C
PCR Buffer providing a good environment for the DNA polymerase
MgCl2 control the effectiveness of the DNA polymerase
Primer short DNA sequence that binds to DNA to start the elongation step in PCR
Master Mix mixture of the common components necessary in all of the PCR reactions (ie: no DNA template)
Cleating agent substance that binds metal ions in solution
Denaturation - 1st step in PCR temperature = 94–98 °C causes DNA melting of the DNA template leads to single-stranded DNA molecules
Anneal - 2nd step in PCR temperature = 50–65 °C allows for annealing of the primers to the single-stranded DNA template. polymerase binds to the primer-template
Elongation or Extension - 3rd step in PCR Heating the reaction to 72-80 °C DNA polymerase creates a new DNA strand complementary (opposite) to the DNA template by adding dNTPs The amount of DNA target is doubled Leads to exponential copies of the target DNA
Genotype genetic makeup of an individual organism
Allele one of two or more alternative forms of a gene; found in the same location
Short Tandem Repeats two or more nucleotides are repeated and are next two each other The number is different between individuals Useful in DNA profiles
Microarray a chip that has a large number of microscopic spots that can be tested at the same time Can identify DNA, proteins and antibodies quickly
Genetically Modified Organisms organism whose genome has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally
Amino Acid molecule with central carbon attached to an amino group (nitrogen), a carboxyl group (acid) and a side chain (R group)
Polypeptide molecule made of two or more amino acids when folded properly, it becomes a protein
Exon sections of DNA that codes for protein
Intron sections of DNA between exons and are non-coding Removed from mRNA during maturation of the mRNA; leaving only exons linked together
Primary structure (protein) level of protein structure that describes the order of the amino acids in a polypeptide
Secondary structure (protein) level of protein structure that is begins the folding of the amino acids using hydrogen bonds
Tertiary structure (protein) level of protein structure that a single polypeptide is fully folded
Quaternary structure (protein) level of protein structure that describes the binding of multiple proteins to form one functional protein Not all proteins reach this level!
Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis electrophoresis technique used to separate primarily proteins and is run vertically
Chromatography techniques for separating molecules based on their physical and chemical characteristics
Resin binds specific substances out of mixtures and is used in column chromatography
Created by: PayneLabTech