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FSHN 350- Unit 3

delta naming system CX:aΔb,c (# of carbons, how many dbl bonds, where they are) *all double bonds
omega naming system CX:aωb (# of carbons, how many dbl bonds, where they are) *only 1st one
desaturase enzymes 4, 5, 6, 9
elongase enzymes add carbons in pairs of 2
butyric acid 4 carbons
lauric acid 12 carbons
myristic acid 14 carbons
palmitic acid 16 carbons
stearic acid 18 carbons
when are trans fats dangerous? low as 1-3% of total calories
first two enzymes in lipid digestion lingual lipase, gastric lipase
bile salts are synthesized by hepatocytes
how do long chain/lysophospholipids/cholesterol enter enterocyte? micelle
how do short and medium chain enter blood? albumin
chylomicron transport of dietary TG from intestines to peripheral tissues
VLDL transport of endogenous TG from liver to peripheral tissues
LDL transport of cholesterol to peripheral tissues
HDL transport of cholesterol to liver
three apolipoproteins on CM B48, E, C2
apolipoprotein B48 function stabilizes CM in aq environment
apolipoprotein C2 function activates LPL
apolipoprotein E function for uptake into liver by LDL receptor
three apolipoproteins on VLDL B100, E, C2
apolipoprotein B100 function LDL recognition
Familial Hypercholesterolemia mutation in LDL receptor or apo B100
Lipoprotein lipase deficiency high CM and high VLDL
oleic acid C18:1Δ9
linoleic acid C18:2Δ9,12
a-linolenic acid C18:3Δ9,12,15
if more than one double bond is present, they occur every three carbons
arachidonic acid C20:4Δ5,8,11,14
EPA C20:5Δ5,8,11,14,17
DHA C22:6Δ4,7,10,13,16,19
cholesterol ester cholesterol w/ ester and fatty acid tail
chylomicrons are composed mostly of triacylglyerols
HDLs are composed mostly of proteins
LDLs are composed mostly of cholesterol esters
LDL receptor recognizes apo B100 on LDL particles; also recognizes apo E on CM and IDL
Tangier disease defect in ABCA1; cholesterol builds up in macrophage
two fates of glycerol oxidized through glycolysis or converted to glucose through gluconeogenesis
how many ATP per beta oxidation cycle? 5
how many ATP per acetyl coA molecule? 12
beta oxidation of unsaturated FAs for each double bond, 2 fewer ATP produced (1 fewer FADH)
beta oxidation of odd-chained FAs propionyl coA-> succinyl coA *converted to glucose so this is glycogenic!
three steps of lipogenesis lipogenesis, desaturation/elongation, esterification
enzyme in fatty acid synthesis fatty acid synthase
ACC knockout mice continuous beta oxidation; won't make malonyl coA
FAS knockout mice more sensitive to insulin; less likely to get fat
three types of eicosanoids prostaglandins, thomboxanes, leukotrienes
two pathways from linoleic acid cyclic (cyclooxygenase), linear (lipoxygenase)
n6 fatty acids cause inflammation
n3 fatty acids cause anti-inflammatory effects
LDL CVD cutoff >130 mg/dL
HDL CVD cutoff <40 mg/dL
serum cholesterol CVD cutoff >200 mg/dL
seven countries study ancel, keys et al *correlation between cholesterol/fat/sat fat and CVD *inverse correlation between PUFA/MUFA
CRP and CVD high CRP (inflammatory protein)-> increased risk of CVD
common soil hypothesis CVD and diabetes are unrelated, but these people are prone to health problems based on lifestyle
___% of CVD occurs in people w/ less than 200mg/dL total cholesterol 35%
Created by: melaniebeale