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Lecture 31

Regulation of Respiration-Lung Diseases

Medullary Control Centers Dorsal respiratory group-DRG-rhythmic discharge leads to phrenic nerveleads to diaphram. Initiates normal breathing. ventral respiratory group-VRG-causes inc inspiration and expiration
Pontine Control Centers Modify medullary centers. pnemotaxic center-switches off inspiration. apneustic center-prolongs inspiration,normally inhibited. If PC is damaged, Hering Brewer reflex from lung stops inspiration
Chemical Control of Respiration Most powerful. Controller of rate. rasies blood CO2,raises brain CO2 raises H= and HCO3-. H+ in brain inc DRG rate.
Peripheral Changes In carotid bodies and aortic bodies. raises H+ or CO2 or dec O2 will raise rate of respiration. little effect in normal range. PO2<60mmHg raises rate,no help in CO poisoning.
Sleep Apnea Dec DRG activity or airway obstruction. In REM, pharyngeal muscles relax and tongue blocks trachea. Dec restful sleep
SIDS Sudden infant death syndrome-exact cause unknown. May be due to congenital DRG problem or cardiac arythmia. Baby sleeping on bach dec SIDS, mother smoking in pregnancy inc SIDS. Child abuse may have skewed SIDS stats.
Pneumothorax Rupturing of thorax-air enters intrapleural space. Pressure equalizes, lung collapses on rupture side. Dec flow in good side. danger of kinking of great veins if opening remains. Reclosed-normal breathing on good side,lung re-inflates.
Asthma Episodic or chronic wheezing,tightness in chest. Inc morbidity and mortality
Airway Obstruction Inc mucus production in response blocks airway. reduces air flow
Inflammation Response to allergies inc IgE. raises mast cell release of histamine and other cytokines. edema inc airflow
Bronchoconstriction some cytokines are bronchoconstrictors. Also cool air and exercises constriction dec airflow
SRS-A Slow reactive substance of anaphylaxis,leurktriens. powerful bronchoconstrictor during allergic attack. potentially fatal attack
Epinephrine beta 2 receptors bind epi. relax bronchioles, raises air flow. rescue from serious allergic attacks. steroids dec inflammation. side effects significant
Emphysema Cigarette smoke,coal,tar most common causes.
Decreased alpha-Antitrypsin lungs have digestive enzymes for defense. Alpha-antitrypsin protects lung tissue from digestion. inhibit alpha A T production and enzymes digest alveoli. dec # of alveoli and inc size of remaining alveoli.
Surface Area Progressive dec in surface area. may need pure O2 to fill Hb. Irreversible-right heart enlarges and fails
Cystic Fibrosis recessive gene-dec Cl- channel activity. loss of airway Na+ and water-mucus sticky and digestive enzymes inc. inc infection, lung destruction-fatal
Created by: danamarie9323