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Lecture 28

Adaptive Immunity:T Lymphocytes-Skin

T Lymphocytes Attack cells w/ both a foreign antigen (MHC). Cancer, virus infected cells, transplants attacked
Cytotoxic Cells Bind to cell and inject perforin-form pore. Osmotic lysis follows
Helper T Cells Release cytokines that activate all B and T lymphocytes
AIDS HIV attack on helper T cells-dec immune response. Opportunistic diseases can now attack. Avoid multiple concurrent infections. HIV needs broken skin to enter-hard to get.
Helper T Cell Cytokines Paracrines that regulate immune response. Inc proliferation, growth, and function. When cytokine structure known, renamed an interleukin.
Major Histocompatibility Complex Previously known as HLA antigens
MHC-Class 1 Self antigens- on surface of all cells. Identify cells as self. 3-6 out of 100 possible antigens on every cells. Others in foreign cells attacked.
MHC-Class 2 Ingest and present antigens-activate T-cells.
Transplants Non-matching MHC 1 cells are attacked by antibodies Partial match has both self and foreign antigen triggering T lymphocyte attack Try to match MHC class 1 proteins. T cells-may attack-suppress T cells-more infections Leukeimia-replace marrow-fungus risk
Tumors Benign tumors stay localized, no infiltration of surrounding tissues. Malignant tumors have transformed cells-cancer. Can infiltrate to nearby tissues. Can metastasize to other parts of the body
Allergies Immune reaction to a harmless substance. Allergies can produce responses.
Immediate Hypersensitivity Immune response ~ 20 min. B cell mediated-antibody production
Stimuli Non bacterial: pollen,bee stings,penicillin, mold,dust,IgE antibodies Many in skin,eyes,lungs,GItract.System designed to attac parasite worms.Chem triggers:histamine,vasodilaiton,capillary permeabilit inc SRS-A:strong bronchiole contract,potential lethal
Symptoms Localized reaction. Upper respiratory hay fever:congestion,edema,sneezing,runny nose. Bronchioles: Asthma:inflammation,constriction,inc mucus-difficulty breathing
Anaphylactic Shock Allergens spread by blood. Severe hypotension due to inc capillary permeability. Bronchoconstriction. Treat w/ epinephrine
Delayed Hypersensitivity Immune response in 24 hrs. T cells mediated. Poison ivy, some toxins stimulate T cells may migrate to area of contact and produce rash.
Skin Mechanical barrier w/ defense mechanism
Epidermis Layer epithelialcells.Deadcells outermost, dividing cellsbeneath.No bloodsupply,supplied by diffusionfrom dermis.Desmosomesand keratin fibersHold cellstogether wkeratinizedlayer remaingafterdeath.Pathogentight.Airtightfairly watertight,preventsevap.
Dermis Connective tissue beneath the epidermis. Blood vessels,nerve endings,many cell types.Blood regulates heat loss.Sweat glands-sweat has variable Na+ content. Sebaceous glands-oil waterproofs skin. Hair follicles-inc touch sensitivity Melanin absorbs UVlight
Hypodermis Adipose tissue-insulates body from heat loss.
Epidermis cont. Burns destroy epidermis,cause hypotension and shock
Dermis cont. Langerhans cells present antigens, UV resistant granstein cells:slow immune responses:net:UV light inc skin cancer.
Created by: danamarie9323



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