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Lecture 27

Adaptive Immunity: B Lymphocytes

Antigens Substances that activate B and T lymphocytes. Most foreign, some self-antigensin autoimmune diseases.
Antigen Presentation Protein antigens Taken in + partially digested by macropahges Part of antigen linked to MHC protein,put in cell membrane B or T cellthen find protein complex leads to activating T cell attack on cells that have protein or have B cells produce antibodies.
B Lymphocytes Bind antigens-full activation. Requires T-helper cell contact antigen binding triggers call proliferation into plasma (B cell clone) cells and memory cells.
Plasma Cells Antibody factories-make antibodies to antigen that bound high ER for Ab production, loses other organelles. Limited lifetime ~ 1 week.
Memory Cells Both B and T cells. A few cells have very long life. Provide immunity from antigens.
Primary Response Activation of B or T cells is slow, short, and weak.
Secondary Response Activation of memory cells is fast,strong,and long. Massive response upon second exposure
Immunoglobulins-Antibodies IgG,IgA,IgD,IgM,IgE are y shaped proteins. Variable region:arm tips of the y shaped protein. Can bind 2 antigens/Ab, must be same type of antigen. Constant region: tall region. Activates some aspect of immune system when antigen bound.
Antibody Functions Major func: activate complement system to kill bacteria. Labels cells for ingestion by phagocytes. Activate natural killer cells. Minor physiological func: neutralization by binding. Used for laboratory testing.
Blood Types Based on surface carbs. Genes code for enzymes that add carbs. Transfusion reaction if mismatch.
ABO Systems A factor, B factor, AB has both factors. O has neither A or B antigen
RH Factor 2 gene system:gene for factor,activator gene. No activator:weak t reaction, formerly missed. Rhogam given to Rh- mothers of Rh+ children.
Created by: danamarie9323