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Lecture 26

White Blood Cells-Innate Immunity

Cell Types Leukocytes (white blood cells). 5 types-all have diff defesne func. Multi-lobed nucei granulocytes. Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils. Stained by neutral,acid, or basic dyes. Single lobbed nuclei agranulocytes: monocytes, lymphocytes.
Phagocytes Phagocytosis of bacteria and dead cells. Order of attack: resident macrophages,neutrophils, new monocyte leads to macrophagemigration
Neutrophils Rapid response- move from blood to damage tissue. Diapedesis-squeeze through capillary pores attack bacteria.
Monocytes-Macrophages Monocytes move into tissues and become macrophages. Rezident macrophages wait for bacteria to come. During infection, vast movement of monocytes into infected area. Massive macrophage attack on bacteria.
Eosinophils Produce acids that kill parasites. High in GI tract. Produce allergic responses.
Basophils Release histamine. Histamine causes inflammaiton. Inc blood flow (arteriolar dilation). Inc pore size (allows diapedesis).
Defense Mechanisms Innate (non specific) immunity. Defense mechanisms not influenced by prior exposure. Acquired (specific) immunity, B and T lymphocytes attack specific antigens.
Inflammation Non-specific response. Occurs w/ any infecetion or injury
Chemotaxis Chemical signals form damaged areas draw phagocytes
Complement System Series of 9 plasma factors-C1-C9. Major bacteria killer
Activation By antibodies or by the protein properdin. This is opsinin tagging of surface carbs on bacteria. Leads to pore formation in bacteria membranes.
Pore Formation C5-C9 can from pores in membrane.Very local, rapid inactivation. Pore allows osmotic lysis: Na+ enters, H2O follows, cell swells and bursts. Ill feeling cause: bacterial toxins, activation of pain receptors from partially digested protein of dead bacteria
Histamine Inc. blood flow-brings phagocytes,oxygen,amino acids. Inc. capillary permeability-opens pores for liquid and diapedisis.
Interferon Cytokine-released from virus-infected cells. Activate anti-viral defenses in cells near viral infected cells. Many side affects.
Natural Killer Cells Non t-cell lymphocytes. No prior exposure needed for activation
Activation Lipids and carbs on bacteria, tumors, transplants, and by antibodies on cell surface. Forms pores by injecting perforin-kills by lysis.
Created by: danamarie9323