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Lecture 5 IT 212

TermDefinition
According to the OED, what is software? The programs and procedures required to enable a computer to perform a specific task, as opposed to the physical components of the system.
According to the book, what is software? A recorded set of instructions that control the actions of a machine.
You’re using software when... you press a single button that accomplishes a predefined set of tasks (specific button to pop popcorn on a microwave for example) (Software is stored in an IC within a microwave)
Hardware the physical components upon which a program executes
Hardware and Software are interchangeable, so There is nothing that can be done in software that can’t be done in hardware and vice-versa, if speed of execution is not an issue.
Which is better - hardware or software? listen to lecture slide
Determine which Microsoft OS was released for the following years 2001 2005 2009 2012 2001: Windows XP was released 2005: Vista 2007: Windows 7 2012: Windows 8
Programs written for mainframes * Specific to a particular application and computer (Gizmo Corp’s payroll, Not transportable) * Either very expensive or free (Expensive:specific application and user Free:Provided by computer manufacturer to assist in sale of hardware)
Popularity of best software is the empowerment it gives people over computers
Best software gives the user the ability to write macros
OS is fundamentally different than other software in that the OS is the one program that you must have to do anything on your computer
All application programs require an____be installed in the computer OS
Most software is now licensed, not sold. Why? listen to lecture
The lowest level computer language is machine language (Each machine language instruction comprises a series of bits. Machine language is what the computer understands.)
Higher than machine language is assembly language (It uses simple commands to provide step-by-step instructions to the CPU It has a one-to-one correspondence with machine language instructions It is a human understandable version of machine language)
Languages that are at a higher level than assembly language include C and Java (They allow programmers to write sophisticated instructions that are easily understandable by humans)
Java is a very popular language because programs written in Java can... work with any OS as opposed to programs written in C
At the highest level are languages such as BASIC, Visual Basic and DOS Batch
Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) Systems Planning and Selection to Systems Analysis to Systems Design to System Implementation and Operation then back to Systems Planning and Selection
Systems Planning and Selection Analyze and arrange organization’s information needs, identify and describe potential project, determine system scope, and provide a business case for continuing with the project
Feasibility Analysis determine economic and organizational impact of the system
Systems Analysis Thorough study of organization’s current system and processes, determination of system requirements, structuring requirements, generate alternative design strategies. Use of UML for system modeling Goal: describe what needs to be done
Systems Design Translating alternative solution generated by analysis phase into detailed logical and physical system specifications. Goal: identify how the task will be accomplished
Logical design: not tied to any hardware or software platform
Physical design: specific programming languages, databases, architectures
System Implementation and Operation Information system is coded, tested, and installed, and undergoes periodic corrections and enhancements Goal: provide a fully operational system
A linear progression from phase to phase and encourages rigid project milestones between each phase The Waterfall Model (a software equivalent of a game of snakes and ladders. Some say it is inflexible Better suited for larger projects)
Created by: chipotlefan