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Tech Ch 4,5,7


Systems Software - Application Software PC & equipment. - Programs.
Personal Productivity Software Excel, word, paint, notepad
Graphical User Interface - Command-based User Interface Displays pictures and menus. - Text commands.
Utility Software system software that maintains a computer; anti-virus software, disk clean-up. hardware utilities, security, file-compression, spam-filtering, network and internet, server and mainframe utilities.
Proprietary Software - Off-the-shelf Software One of a kind contract software. - Mass produced.
Application Program Interface (API) links application software to the operating system, provides hardware independence for the developers. Application Software > API > Operating system>Computer system hardware
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) integrated programs that manage a company's vital operations for a global organization. HR, Billing, Treasury.
Database Organized collection of facts and information. Flat file, single user, multiple users.
Database Management System (DBMS) group of programs that manipulate the database and provide an interface between the DB and the user and other application programs.
Hierarchy of Data (smallest to largest) character field record file database
Relations two-dimensional tables that all data elements are placed into in a relational model. At least one common element. Equivalent of files. Organized in rows and columns.
Primary Key uniquely identifies a record.
Data Cleanup ensures accurate and complete data.
Advantages/Disadvantages of Database Approach reduced data redundancy, improved data integrity, easier modification and updating, better access to data and info, standardization of data access, better overall protection of the data. complex, difficult to recover from failure, expensive.
Data Modeling diagram of data entities and their relationships. Payroll, retail order placing, employee flow-chart
Database Schema description of the entire database. Tells the DBMS the logical and physical structure of the data and the relationships.
Characteristics in selecting a Database Management System (DBMS) size, number of users, performance, integration, vendor, cost.
Data Definition Language (DDL) - Data Manipulation Language (DML) Acts on the structure of the database. Acts on the data within.
Distributed Database System Spreads the data across several smaller databases connected via telecommunications systems.
Internet Largest computer network. Easy-access. Collection of interconnected networks that freely exchange info.
Arpanet Ancestor of the internet by DoD 1969. To connect the DOD and military research contractors.
TCP/IP Protocol for Arpanet in 1982. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) transport layer protocol that is used with Internet protocol (IP) that enables computers to route communications traffic from one network to another.
Web Browser Firefox Chrome IE Opera
Cloud Computing computing environment in which software and storage are provided as an Internet service and are accessed with a Web browser. Dropbox.
FTP supports file transfers between a host and a remote computer.
Telnet Protocol that enables users to log on to the networks remotely over the internet.
The Web Server and client software, http, standards, and mark-up languages that combine to deliver info and services over the Internet.
URL Uniform Resource Locator- An assigned address on the Internet for each computer.
Computer System Platform Combination of a hardware configuration and operating system.
Applications CPU_Memory_Devices >Kernel> Applications
Kernel Manages the system's resources; the communication between hardware and software components.
6 Basic Functions of an Operating System CIMPUF CPU management, Input/Output management, Memory management, Process management, User management, File management
Process Basic unit of executing software that is independent and manged by the operating system.
Process Control Block data structure that stores info about a single process. ATM process.
3 Process States Ready- Waiting for access to CPU. Running- Has CPU access. Blocked
Preemptive Scheduling "bumped" Hard Rock free tickets
Priority Based Scheduling First in/ first out (FIFO), Explicit prioritization, Shortest time remaining
Realtime Scheduling Uses elapsed time and CPU time. DMV process.
Five Generations of Programming Languages Machine (binary), assembly, high-level (procedural), query and database languages (non-procedural), natural and intelligent (visual/graphical development interfaces)
Compiler / Interpreter Check, convert, execute. Read, check, translate, execute.
Source Code / Object Code Commands to be compiled. Code produced by a compiler.
Software Licenses Single-user; one computer, multi-user; specified # of users, concurrent user (netflix), site (Tulane).
What to consider when building a database? Content, Logical structure, Access, Physical organization.
Concurrency Control two or more people/ programs need to access the same record in a database at the same time.
Query by Example (QBE) Visual approach to developing queries.
Structured Query Language (SQL) Standard query language for relational databases.
DNS Domain Name System is the IP address. 1984.
Backbone One of the internet's high spped, long distance communications links.
Created by: kirstieallie