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Objective 2.01

Graphic Images

Graphics Anything on the page that is not actual text, from simple line drawings to fully active images found on the World Wide Web.
Color Depth The number of colors per pixel that can be contained in an image.
Compression Refers to how an image is saved in order to reduce the file size.
Lossless Reduces the file size without losing any pixel data.
Lossy Alters and/or eliminates some data.
Portability How easily you can open, modify, and view the files on computers using different operating systems, software and browsers.
Transparency Allows the background color of an image to be "eliminated" or made transparent so that the background behind the image can be seen.
Raster Graphics Also called bitmap graphics. Consists of grids of tiny dots called pixels. Have a fixed resolution and can't be resized without altering the image quality. Edited in paint programs.
Vector Graphics Created from mathematical formulas used to define lines, curves, and nodes. (Drawing Points) Edited in draw programs.
Meta Graphics Can contain vector and raster data. Useful when layering text on top of raster graphics. Examples: WMF - Windows Metafile EPS - Encapsulated Postscript
GIF Graphics Interchange Format Standard format for animation on the Internet. Transparency Lossless Compression Colors = 256 (8-bit)
JPEG Joint Photographic Experts Group No Animation No Transparency Lossy Compression Colors = 16.7 M (24-bit) High quality but larger file size than a GIF.
BMP Bitmap No Animation No Transparency Uncompressed Colors = 256 - 16.7 M Large file size - not well suited for transfer across the Internet for print publications.
PNG Portable Network Graphics No Animation Transparency Lossless Compression Colors = 256 - 16.7 M Not suited for photographs. Not widely supported by web browsers and image viewers/editors without plugins.
TIFF Tagged Image File Format No Animation No Transparency Available in compressed and uncompressed formats. (Compressed is advised.) Colors = 16 M (24-bit)
Advantages of Vector Format Resolution is independent so the image definition and quality always remain the same. Small file sizes that are easily transferable.
Disadvantages of Vector Format Lower color quality than raster graphics. Not good for photographic images.
Vector File Formats Xara Xtreme Adobe Illustrator CorelDRAW DXF - AutoCAD Inkscape SVG PLT CDR DXF WMF
Clip Art Premade graphics that are available online and in many software packages; may be vector or raster.
Photographs Raster images that contain millions of colors.
Art Work Computer created drawings or paintings; may be raster or vector.
Resolution The amount of detail (or data) stored for an image.
PPI Pixels Per Inch
DPI Dots Per Inch
Aspect Ratio Relationship of an object's width to its height.
Cloning Copying part of an image and using it to replace unwanted parts of the image.
Cropping Cutting out part of an image.
Filters Used to apply special effects to an image that would be too difficult to create manually.
Gradients Filling an object/image with a smooth transition from one color to another.
Layering Compiling multiple pictures or objects together into one image.
Patterns Raster graphics used to fill an object or selection.
Textures Used to create filters and backgrounds.
Rotating Pivoting an object around its center point.
Transparency Removing the background color of a raster graphic to make it "see through".