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Science and Tech

Archaeology pg 5 - 9 **4 practice questions from this section**

What is Archaeology? Archaeology is the study of people who lived in the past and the objects they left behind. It's the only field of study that covers all time periods and geographic regions inhabited by humans
Why is archaeology important? It helps us understand where and when people lived on earth, like why and how they lived. The study of artifacts allows us to explore cultures and civilization before the use of written language.
What is a site? It's a piece of land archaeologist excavate (dig up) an area to study
How do archaeologists study small items? With microscopes
What are some examples of archaeological sites? Shipwrecks, battlefields, military sites, slave quarters, plantations, cemeteries, mills, factories
Where did one of the earliest excavations occur? In Babylon during the rule of King Nebuchadnezzar II
During the 16th and 17th centuries, it was fashionable for the wealthy to- Display interesting objects of past civilizations
When did the modern archaeological systematic processes begin? Not until the late 1700’s
Who started the process for the orderly study of artifacts? Thomas Jefferson
How did Thomas Jefferson examine Native American burial grounds in Virginia in 1784? Instead of digging deep into the soil, he excavated by digging layer by layer and recorded everything he found
How did Heinrich Schliemann find the city of Troy? He followed the descriptions of the city of Troy from Homer’s epic tale Iliad.
How is a dig a detailed examination? A dig begins with a narrow section called a trench. Then larger sites are divided into a grid. This helps with recording specific observations and location.
Why do deserts and very cold locations preserve artifacts and bodies better? Objects decay more rapidly where this is a combination of water and oxygen.
What tools do archaeologists use? photographs, ground radar, gradiometers- measure magnetic variations in the ground, resistivity meters- measure the amount of moisture in the soil, small hand trowels (shovels), brushes, spoons, dental picks- to uncover delicate objects
What are ecofacts? Natural remains of plants and animals. They help to understand diet and nutrition.
What is the context of an object? Context is discovering how two items might be related and determine what the item was and how it was used.
What does Hiram Bingham discover? Machu Picchua, a complex of over 200 building “The Lost City of the Incas” in 1911
How was Bingham honored? The April 1913 issue of National Geographic’s was dedicated to his discovery.
Created by: jhelsc