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Lymphatic & Immunity

chapter figure questions/checkpoints

What tissue contains stem cells that develop into lymphocytes? Red Bone Marrow (a specialized form of reticular connective tissue)
Is lymph more similar to blood plasma or to interstitial fluid? Interstitial fluid: lymph is the excess drained interstitial fluid. also, the protein content of lymph is low
Which lypmphatic vessels empty into the cisterna chyli & which duct receives lymph from the cisterna chyli? The R/L lumbar trunks as well as the intestinal trunk empty into the cisterna chyli which then drains into the thoracic duct
Does inhalation promote or hinder the flow of lymph? PROMOTE: as inhalation occurs, lypmph flows from the higher pressured abdominal region to the lower pressured thoracic region **lymph flows upward**
Which type of lymphocytes mature in the thymus? T-cells mature in the cortex of the thymus
What happens to foreign substances in lymph that enter a lymph node? Lymph enters one end of the lymph node where the foreign substances get trapped by the reticular fibers within the sinuses. Macrophages destroy some foreign substances through phagocytosis while lymphocytes destroy others through immune response
After birth, what are the main fx of the spleen? White Pulp: B & T cells carry out immunity related fx Red Pulp: blood cell fx 1. removal of ruptured, worn out, or defective blood cells & platelets 2. storage of platelets
How are interstitial fluid and lymph similar, & how do they differ? Similar: fluid that bathes blood cells Differences: LOCATION (interstitial fluid is found btwn cells & lymph is found in lymphatic tissue & lymphatic vessels) interstifial fluid=RBC : lymph=lymphocytes
How do lymphatic vessels differ in structure from veins? Lymphatic vessels have thinner walls & more valves
Diagram the route of lymph circulation blood capillaries (blood) -> interstitial spaces (interstitial fluid) -> lymphatic capillaries (lymph) -> lymphatic vessels (lymph) -> lymphatic ducts (lymph) -> junction of the internal jugular & subclavian veins (blood)
What is the role of the thymus in immunity? To produce & proliferate mature T cells & populate the secondary lymphatic organs & tissues with T cells
What fx's do lymph nodes, the spleen, & the tonsils serve? they are all a form of a filter against foreign substances. lymph nodes: lymph spleen: blood tonsils: inhaled/injested
When do lymphatic tissues begin to develop? By the end of the 5th week of embryonic life
What are the names of the 4 lymph sacs from which lymphatic vessels develop? 1. Jugular Lymph Sacs 2. Retroperitoneal Lymph Sac 3. Cisterna Chyli 4. Posterior Lymph Sacs
What chemicals are responsible for killing ingested microbes? Lysozyme, digestive enzymes, & oxidants can kill microbes ingested during phagocytosis
What causes the redness in inflammation? Vasodilation will increase the blood flow to a certain area therefore the redness comes from the large amount of blood to the area
What causes the pain in inflammation? Injury of nerve fibers, irritation by microbial toxins, kinins, & prostaglandins, & pressure due to edema
What causes the heat in inflammation? increased blood flow & the rise of metabolic reactions
What causes the swelling in inflammation? leakage of fluid from capillaries due to increased permeability of blood vessels
What physical & chemical factors provide protection from disease in the skin & mucuous membranes? Physical factors: epidermis Chemical factors: mucus, tears, perspiration, nasal secretions, & tissue fluids, urine, vaginal secretions, vomit, sebum, gastric juice
What internal defenses provide protection against microbes that penetrate the skin & mucuous membranes? Antimicrobial substances: interferons, complement, iron-binding proteins, & antimicrobial proteins Phagocytes Natural Killer (NK) Cells Inflammation Fever
How are the activities of NK cells & phagocytes similar/different? similar: they do not depend on specific antigen recognition and do not exhibit a memory response different: NK cells promote cell lysis by direct cell attack (not killing the microbes inside) whereas phagocytes engulf and destroy pathogens
What are the main signs, symptoms, & stages of inflammation? signs and symptoms: redness, pain, heat, swelling stages: vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels, emigration of phagocytes from blood into interstitial fluid, tissue repair
Which type of T cell participates in both cell-mediated & antibody-mediated immune responses? T-helper cells (CD4)
What is the difference between an epitope & a hapten? epitopes are smaller immunogenic parts of the larger antigen molecule while hapten become immunogenic only when they attach to a larger carrier molecule
Created by: ashleyc_m



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