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Hematology and Coagulation

Acute Blood Loss Anemia  Result of a traumatic condition  Severe hemorrhage Body adjusts to the lower blood volume by diverting fluids from other extra-vascular spaces to the circulation
Acute Blood Loss Anemia Lab Finding  Rapid decrease of platelet levels  Left shift of the leukocytes (immature cells)  Direct smear: normocytic, normochromic cells.
Chronic Blood Loss Anemia  Blood loss of small amounts occurs over an extended period of time  Chronic and continual loss of blood - Overall blood volume is not effected  Usually results in an iron deficiency anemia - Depleted iron stores
Clinical findings Chronic Blood Loss Anemia  Reticulocytes - Normal or slightly elevated  Anemia develops after iron storage is depleted - hypochromic, microcytic  WBCs - Normal or slightly decreased  Platelets - Normal and decrease in severe iron deficiency
Aplastic Anemia  Failure of pluripotential stem cells to produce RC, WC, and megakaryocytes  CD 34 cell population is deficient in number  Results in reduced growth and production of all blood cell lines
Forms of Aplastic Anemnia  Idiopathic  Constitutional  Iatrogenic- drug related  Infections
Lab Finding of Aplastic Anemia RBC's  Normocytic, normochromic  Variations of aniso, poik and macro
Lab Finding of Aplastic Anemia Pancytopenia Deficient production of blood cells of all types  Diagnosis is made when at least 2 of 3 peripheral blood values fall below critical levels.
Fanconi’s Anemia  Inherited through an autosomal recessive gene  Most frequently seen aplastic anemia in children  Twice as common in males than females
Fanconi's Anemia Clinical Symproms  Low birth weight  Skin hyperpigmentation  Short stature  Skeletal disorders
Falconi's Anemia Lab Finding  Progressive pancytopenia-Apparent by 5 years old  Hemoglobin level:5-6 g/dl with moderate to severe pancytopenia  DNA testing using HLA typing
Pure Red Cell Aplasia involves disturbed erythropoeisis
Pure Red Cell Aplasia Acquired  Selective failure of RBC production  Leukocytes and platelets are normal
Pure Red Cell Aplasia Chronic Associated with drugs, collagen vascular disorders and lympho-proliferative disorders
Diamond-Blackfan Syndrome  Congenital hypoplastic anemia  Slow progressive and refractory anemia  Normal WBCs and platelets  Severe cases RBCs are normochromic, Slight Macrocytic
Transient Erythroblastopenia of Childhood  Occurs in healthy children younger than 8 years old  Self-limiting - Previous viral infection common
Transient Erythroblastopenia of Childhood Clinical Findings  Moderate to severe normocytic anemia  Severe reticulocytopenia
Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anemia  Indirect hyperbilirubinemia  Ineffective erythropoiesis  Peculiarly shaped multinuclear erythroblasts
Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anemia Laboratory Findings Decreased Hgb, Hct, and RBC's Decreased leukocytes and platelets
Created by: liudka11