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Exercise Physiology

Exam 2

QuestionAnswer
the volume of blood pumped by the heart per minute is referred to as cardiac output
according to lecture, the principle by which the heart works to pump blood is due to pressure differences
in an elite athlete, which of the following is true concerning stroke volume increased stroke volume at rest increased stroke volume at a standardized submaximal rate of work increased stroke volume at maximal rates of work
what organ system receives the majority of blood flow during exercise skeletal muscle
what organ system receives less blood flow (% and absolute) during exercise intestines/kidneys/liver/spalnchic bed
increases in cardiac output during exercise at an intensity above 80% of maximum are largely the result of increased... heart rate
stroke volume increases with increasing rates of work up to an exercise intensity of ___% of maximal capacity 40 to 60
EDV - ESV SV
if myocardial contractility is decreased, which of the following will increase? ESV
in order to redistribute blood flow at the onset of exercise, the sympathetic nervous system stimulates ______________, while local factors (CO2, temp, H+) stimulate _____________ to increase blood flow to working skeletal muscle vasoconstriction, vasodilation
Determinants of stroke volume (SV) include ventricular distensibility and contractility the volume of venous blood returned to the heart the aortic or pulmonary arterial pressure
True or False resting cardiac output averages about 5L/min in healthy adults true
True or False a positive chronotropic effect upon the heart will increase HR true
True or False Maximal cardiac output can exceed 30L/min in elite endurance athletes true
cardiorespiratory endurance training will cause which of the following changes? an increase in plasma volume and an increase in red blood cell volume
at very high heart rates during cardiorespiratory endurance exercise, stroke volume may decrease because of... inadequate ventricular filling resulting from a shortening of diastole
cardiorespiratory endurance training causes an increase in left ventricular chamber size an increase in myocardial wall thickness
the largest part of the increase in maximal oxygen uptake in response to endurance training results from increased cardiac output and muscle blood flow
over years of training, maximal oxygen uptake tends to stabilize. Further improvements in an endurance athlete's performance (race pace) are most likely due to increased lactate threshold
the Fick equation indicates that the rate of oxygen consumption is equal to cardiac output times a-VO2 difference
cardiorespiratory endurance-trained athletes are able to achieve much higher maximal cardiac outputs than the average person because of an increased maximal stroke volume and an increased ventricular size
the heart of a highly trained endurance athlete would be characterized by increased end-diastolic pressure increased left ventricular wall thickness increased ejection fraction
in response to cardiorespiratory endurance training, what occurs to cardiac output maximal cardiac output is substantially increased
following training, RBC volume will (increase/decrease) increase
following training, hematocrit will (increase/decrease) decrease
following training, hematocrit with decrease due to an (increase/decrease) in _________________ increase in plasma volume
the normal pacemaker of the heart is the sinoatrial node
what is responsible for increasing HR to values above 100bpm sympathetic nervous system
parasympathetic stimulation of the heart... is mediated by the vagus nerve
stroke volume equals EDV - systolic volume
blood to the skeletal muscles in pumped from which chamber of the heart left ventricle
skeletal muscles receive approximately ______% of the total cardiac output under resting conditions, but they can receive as much as ____% of cardiac output during heavy endurance exercise 15;80
true or false parasympathetic stimulation of the heart causes the heart rate to increase false
true or false the heart does not have to receive an impulse from the sympathetic nervous system to in order to contract true
true or false a positive inotropic effect upon the heart will increase contractility true
how does stroke volume change with aerobic training increased SV at rest increased SV at a standardized submaximal rate increased SV at maximal rates of work
the ratio of total blood cell mass to total blood volume is referred to as hematocrit
the oxygen-carrying function of the blood is provided by hemoglobin
aerobic training results in what heart rate adaptations? decrease in resting HR lower HR at a standard submaximal rate of work
the average hematocrit for a human is approximately ____% 40 to 45
an increase in RBC without an equivalent increase in plasma volume results in increased blood viscosity
at very high HR during cardiorespiratory endurance exercise, stroke volume may decrease because of... inadequate ventricular filling resulting from a shortening of diastole
what allows an increase in muscle blood flow during submaximal and maximal exercise after cardiorespiratory endurance training increased capillarization of trained skeletal muscle greater utilization of existing capillaries in trained skeletal muscles more effective distribution of blood
what would not contribute to increased endurance performance a decrease in lactate threshold
what is the best objective laboratory measure of aerobic power, or cardiorespiratory endurance? maximal oxygen uptake
echocardiography can used to view and measure or monitor... thickness of heart walls action of the heart valves size of the heart chambers
according to lecture, the measurement of VO2 is synonymous with cardiovascular function
the best objective measure for cardiovascular function VO2max
the best objective measure for cardiac function is cardiac output (Q)
the concept of preload as it relates to improved cardiac hemodynamics is best described by what relationship Frank-Starling
an increase in the vigor of contraction is termed a positive _________effect inotropic
a positive inotropic effect is normally a function of the _________________ nervous system sympathetic
decreased vigor of contraction is termed a positive _____________ effect inotropic
a negative inotropic effect is normally a function of the ______________ nervous system parasympathetic
changes in vigor of contraction are a result of the amount of ___________ released into the mycardium calcium
the heart works as a pump by creating a positive ____________ differental pressure
the hydraulic pump system of the heart is affected by length _____________ of the vessel, and the ______________ of the blood, described by ______________ law radius/diameter; viscosity; posielles
ventilation = TV*Bf(rr)
during exercise, the ventilation perfusion ration Ve/Q increases
increased Ve during exercise is primarily stimulated by increased blood levels of ________ CO2
increased Ve at the onset exercise is primarily due to __________ factors neural
True or False the Bohr effect increases loading of oxygen in the lungs false
the mechanism for movement of air into and out of the lungs is _______________ ventilation
ventilation is accomplished by muscle contractions that increase lung volume (inspiration) and decreases lung volume (expiration). These changes conform to ___________ law Boyles
True or False lung volumes increase significantly with training false
resting lung volumes are measured with a technique called _____________ spirometry
alveolar ventilation = T(v-deadspace) * Bf (rr)
the oxygen cascade was described as it relates to this gas law Dalton's law
True or False the ventilatory equivalent of O2 decreases during incrementally increasing exercise false
following training, blood lactate levels are __________ at the same absolute exercise intensity lower
following training, the lactate threshold will shift right
Created by: elyk01