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MIS Chapter 4

ENIAC electronic numerical integrator and computer, first general purpose computer, large expensive,
when and why was the ENIAC invented? 1946, calculate ballistic missiles
where did the term "bug" come from? when a moth was caught in the ENIAC, which caused it to stop working
FERUAT, when was it installed? 1st digital computer in Canada, 1952
1st and second gen mainframes 1st commercial digital comps based on vacuum tube technology, sold without software, company would have to buy their own
3rd gen mainframes 1960, included operating systems, multiprocessing technlogy
does anyone use mainframes anymore? larger organizations
mainframes designed for fast processing and massive storage
microprocessors critical in development of microcomputers,
BASIC Microsoft programming language
DOS operating system
when was the PC launched 1981
what were microcomputers originally intended for? used by one person at one time
local area network solved what problems? the lack of networking capabilities
who proposed LAN? Robert Metcalfe
when was the WAN commercialized? 1980, wide area network, originally developed as a network of mainframes
dot come bubble a time when new internet companies were funded by venture captalists and many bankrupted
why was the end of the 20th century an impt period? YAK (2000 problem), cost drop for cell technology and mobile phones
what was the YAK (2000 problem) due to early programming being expensive, dates were shortened to '64, when 2000 hit ppls ages were -40
what are the 3 main componants in a computer processor, memory, storage, (getting smaller and costing less)
hardware consists of the physical electornic components and related gadgetry that input, process and store data according to instructions encoded in computer programs and software
what 4 components do computers consist of, hardware? input devices, processing devices, output hardware, storage hardware
input devices most visible part of comp, keyboard, touch screen, scantron scanner, compared on physical dimensions or how being used
processing devices includes CPU; works in conjunction with main memory;
CPU "brain of comp"; selects instructions, processes them, performs arithmetic and stores operations in memory; measured in hertz or cycles; type of CPU needed depends on the type of computing you want to do
main memory "random access memory" (ram)
output hardware most physical interaction with user; producing/ displaying desired results; ex. display monitor, printer, speaker
storage hardware saves data and programs; memory cards, CDs, Magnetic disks; magnetic tape is sometimes used bc cheap and easily stored; USB
USB universal serial bus
special function cards can be added to augment each component; ex. video cards, additional co-processors, extra storage
binary digits represent data using binary digits called bits
bit "0" or "1"; easy to represent physically
byte 8-bits; one byte/character; used to measure non character data as well
what does the CPU do? transfers program or data from a disc to main memory
data channel (bus) CPU moves instruction from the main memory into the CPU via this
cache CPU's small amt of very fast storage; CPU keeps frequently used instructions there
what does having a large cache mean? computer is faster, more expensive
operating system a program that controls the comps resources and a block of data
memory swapping when there isn't enough free memory to run program so the CPU takes out an unused block of memory and replaces it
what happens when there isn't enough memory comp keeps swapping memory and it will run slower
volatile contents are lost when the power goes out; ex. cache and main memory
non-volatile contents survive even when power goes off; ex. USB, magnetic discs, optical discs
hertz speed or # of cycles per second a comp works at
gigahertz 1 billion cycles/second
client computers used for word, spread sheets, data base access, ect; have software that allows them to connect to a network
servers provide services; ex. FB, google, Amazon;
server computer have to be faster, larger and more powerful, simple video displays
server farm used for large commercial sites (google, amazon); large collection of computers that coordinate all activities
cloud computing servers that supply applications and data; customers don't own the computer they use;
what is cloud a metaphor for? the internet
whats an example of cloud computing? Hotmail, google docs
why is cloud computing more efficient? ppl pay only for what they use
grid computing several computers used to address a single problem at the same time
how does grid computing work? uses software to divide pieces of a program among several computers
what does grid computing do? adds the ability to store and access data remotely and pay for its service
what is computer software divided into? operating systems, application software
operating systems large and complicated programs that control the computer resources; ex. windows
application software programs that perform specific user tasks; ex. Microsoft word
what are the 2 software constraints? each version of operating system is developed for a particular type of hardware; application programs are written to use a particular operating system
instruction set commands that a CPU can process
what are the 4 major OS? windows, mac OS, Unix, Linux
windows most impt OS for business owners, runs Intel Instruction set
mac OS apple comp. inc. developed its own OS for the mac; focussed on software aspects of business, rather than physical and hardware; tightly controlled all aspects of comp systems; less purchases, higher prices
UNIX developed at Bell labs, 1970; workhorse for science and engineering; more difficult to use; not used by avg business person
LINUX version of UNIX, open source community (loose group of programmers); no fee to use it
IBM primary proponent of LINUX
do ppl buy software? no it is licenced out
can ppl sell you the right to use LINUX? no, owned by open source community,
what is the primary role of OS? to create and support application software
application software consists of programs that perform a business ftn; some are general purpose (excel/word); others are very specific (quick books)
horizontal approach application software provides capabilities common across all industries; word processors, graphics, spread sheets; purchased off the shelf; little customization of features
vertical approach application serves the needs of a specific industry; ex. programs in dental offices; usually is altered or customized
one-of-a-kind application software developed for a specific, unique need; ex. Canada revenue agency develops this bc it has specific requirmetnts
Created by: alyshabennett