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Network Fundamenals

Lesson Two - MTA Exam 98-366

TermDefinition
Address Resolution Protocol - ARP The protocol that translates from IP address to MAC address
application layer The OSI model layer where a message creation - and, therefore packet creation - begins. It represents teh network application or service.
ARP table The table in memory that stores IP address to MAC address entries.
Baseband Refers to the fact that all computers on the LAN share the same channel or frequency to transmit data.
Broadband Means that there are multiple channels that can be utilized by the communications system.
CAM table Short for the Content Addressable Memory table, a table in memory of switches set aside to store the MAC address to port translation table.
communications subnetwork the guts of OSI model transmissions, consisting of layers 1 through 3. Regardless of what type of data transmission occurs in a computer network, the communication subnetwork will be employed.
data link layer The OSI Model layer that establishes, maintains , and decides how transfer is accomplished over the physical network.
encapsulated A method where on type of packet is inserted into another type of packet so that it can be sent over a network.
encoded The process of transforming information from one format into another.
inbound ports Ports used when another computer wants to connect to a service or application running on your computer. Servers primarily use inbound ports so that they can accept incoming connections and serve data.
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) An entity that oversees global IP address allocation, autonomous system number allocation, and root zone management to the Domain Name System (DNS).
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) A protocol used by the operating systems to send error messages - indicating that a requested service is not available or that a host or router could not be reached. ICMP can also be used to relay query messages.
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) An organization that develops and promotes Internet standards.
Internet Protocol (IP) A core protocol used in the TCP/IP protocol suite that is used to relay packets across an internetwork.
layer 2 switch A type of switch that switches packets based on the MAC address.
layer 3 switch A type of switch that operates as a router (layer 3).
MAC Flood An attack that sends numerous packets to the switch, each of which has a different source MAC address, in an attempt to use up the memory on the switch.
Media Access Control (MAC) address A unique identifier assigned to network adapters by the manufacturer. This address is six octets in length and is written in hexadecimal.
network layer The OSI model layer is dedicated to routing and switching information to different network, LANs or internetworks.
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model A model used to define how data communication occurs on computer networks. This model is divided into layers, each of which provides services to the layers above and below. These layers are associated with protocols and devices.
outbound ports Used when your computer wants to connect to a service or application running on another computer. Client computers primarily used outbound ports and these are assigned dynamically by the operating system.
overhead A combination of additional computation time, memory, bandwidth, or other resources that is required to perform a task.
physical layer The OSI model layer that covers that physical and electrical medium for data transfer. It includes, but is not limited to, cables, jacks, patch panels, punch blocks, hubs, and MAUs.
ports A logical communications endpoint for computers.
presentation layer The OSI model layer that translates the data format from sender to receiver in the various OSes that may be used.
protocol stack Also known as the protocol suite, multiple protocols that work together to provide a network service or application.
session layer An OSI model layer that controls the dialogues (connections) between computers. It establishes, manages, and terminates the connections between the local and remote applications.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) A layer 4 protocol that is a connection oriented protocol.
transport layer The OSI model layer that ensures error-free transmission between hosts through logical addressing. Therefore, it manages the transmission of messages through layers 1 through 3.
User Datagram Protocol (UDP) A layer 4 protocol that is a connectionless protocol.
virtual LAN (VLAN) A virtual network that is implemented to segment the network, reduce collisions, organize the network, boost performance, and, hopefully, increase security.
Created by: ctrader