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1406 TEST 1

BASIC CHEMISTRY AND THE BIOMOLECULES

QuestionAnswer
Chemical equilibrium is _____________________ forward and reverse reactions continue without any effect on the concentrations of the reactants or products
If an atom has an atomic number of 14, what does that mean???? 14 protons & 14 electrons are present
If the atomic number is 14, how many electrons are in the outermost shell of the atom? 4
A covalent bond is one that has shared electrons of 2 atoms to satisfy the rule of 8
What happens when electrons are shared unequally??? a polar covalent bond
What is an ionic bond involve?? attraction because of the electrical attraction
What explains the attraction of water molecules to each other?? hydrogen bonds between the H (+) of one water and the O (-) of another
In the water molecule, how are H and O bonded together?? polar covalent bonds
Water is cohesive because of it's _________ hydrogen bonding created by their polar covalent properties
Water evaporates when __________ the hydrogen bonds between each molecule breaks
What makes ice less dense and float? hydrogen bonds keep the water molecules farther apart and therefore less dense
An oil or lipid is nonpolar and therefore __________ which is insoluble in water. hydrophobic
2,3,4, or 6.....which has the highest concentration of H+ ions? 2 (lower number, higher concentration)
Organic chemistry is based on compounds made with which element??? carbon
How many bonds can Carbon have? Why? 4, it has room for 4 electrons in the outermost shell
Why are hydrocarbons insoluble in water? most of their bonds are nonpolar covalent C-H bonds
What 2 functional groups are always found protein monomers? amino and carboxyl
Starch, DNA double helix, muscle fiber, fructose.....which one is not the polymer??? fructose, it's a monomer (monosaccharide)
A compound with the formula, C6H12O6, would it be glucose, a monosaccharide, or a carbohydrate??? all 3
An organic compound with C-H-O and H-O is a 2:1 ratio is a _______________________. carbohydrate
Plant cell walls are composed of what polysaccharide??? cellulose
A solid at room temperature, saturated or unsatured fat???? saturated
A liquid at room temperature, saturated or unsaturated fat??? unsaturated
Multiple double bonds in the carbon chains, saturated or unsaturated fat??? unsaturated
All single bonds in the carbon chains, saturated or unsaturated fat??? saturated
Fats most common in animals, saturated or unsaturated??? saturated
Contain more hydrogen with the same number of Carbon atoms, saturated or unsaturated fats?? saturated
Triglycerides or triacylglycerols are composed of ________________? 3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol
Cholesterol, antibodies, insulin, enzymes, hemoglobin......which one is not composed of amino acids? cholesterol
How many amino acids are there and what makes them unique? 20, each one has a different radical
What type bond is formed by condensation in proteins?? peptide bonds
What is formed by bonding of these 3 groups, a phosphate, a nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar?? a nucleotide
What lipid molecule is both hydrophobic and hydrophilic? a phospholipid
What compound is the major component of plasma membranes??? phospholipid
What pentose sugar is found in DNA??? deoxyribose
What pentose sugar is found in RNA??? ribose
which four elements make up 96% of living matter C H N O
the most important polar covalently bonded molecule water
what makes each element unique? the number of protons
strongest of bonds covalent and polar covalent
weakest of bonds and attractions hydrogen bonds, van der Waals interaction, and hydrophobic interactions
created by attraction of ions in water ionic bonds
water can form hydrogen bonds with compounds that have what characteristic?? polar covalent bonds
what makes a compound hydrophobic nonpolar
carbon is most likely to form what kind of bonds covalent
which functional group is an acid carboxyl
which functional group is an alcohol OH
which functional groups are carbonyls C=O, ketones and aldehydes
which carbohydrates are polymers polysaccharides; starches, cellulose, chitin, glycogen
what process builds polymers by adding a monomer with the removal of a water molecule condensation; dehydration synthesis
what process breaks down polymers by adding a water molecule hydrolysis; digestion
an organic compound has a formula of C5 H10 O5, what would be the molecular formula for a molecule made by linking 5 of these monomers together by dehydration synthesis C25 H42 O21 you have to subtract 4 waters = H8 O4
Created by: hembreeb72